Peter Salway, FSA (born 1932) is a British historian, who specialises in Roman Britain. He lectured at the universities of Durham, Cambridge, Bristol and Oxford, before becoming Professor of the History and Archaeology of Roman Britain at the Open University.
From 1951 to 1958, Salway studied at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. He gained a Bachelor of Arts (BA) that was later promoted to Master of Arts (MA), and a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD).
From 1956 to 1957, Salway was the Sir James Knott Research Fellow at King's College, a University of Durham college in Newcastle. He returned to Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge as a fellow from 1957 to 1964. While there, he served as Praelector and then Dean. He was a Senior Lecturer at the University of Bristol from 1964 to 1965. He was also Warden of Hiatt Baker Hall, one of the university's halls of residence.
He is the author of Roman Britain (1981), a volume in the Oxford History of England series.
On 7 January 1960, Salway was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries (FSA).