In his playing career Schöttel played exclusively for Rapid Vienna, making him a cult hero with Rapid fans. He was also Rapid's captain between 1997 and 2001. He won league and domestic cup titles with Rapid and played the full 90 minutes of the 1996 UEFA Cup Winners Cup Final against Paris St Germain in Brussels, which Rapid lost. In 1999 he was chosen as a member of Rapid's Team of the Century.
After finishing his playing career, he began working as a coach for the Rapid amateurs, continuing his association with the club until 2006. On 11 November 2006, after sustaining criticism for negotiating TV punditry contracts while allowing his duties at Rapid to wane, he left the club. In the summer of 2007, he began work as a trainer with Wiener Sportclub with his contract running until the end of June 2008.
His squad number, 5, was retired by Rapid Wien until the 2011 season as a mark of respect for Schöttel's playing career.
Schöttel made his international debut for Austria in a February 1988 friendly match against Switzerland and was a participant at the 1990 FIFA World Cup and 1998 FIFA World Cup. He earned 62 caps but scored no goals. His final international match was the embarrassing 0–9 demolition by Spain in a European Championship qualifying match in March 1999. In 2002 he just played for four minutes in a friendly match against Norway for his official retirement.