Peter Vallentyne (born March 25, 1952, in New Haven, Connecticut) is Florence G. Kline Professor of Philosophy at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri. He holds dual citizenship in the United States and Canada.
He received his Ph.D. from the University of Pittsburgh in 1984, under the direction of David Gauthier and with significant help from Shelly Kagan. He formerly taught at the University of Western Ontario (1984-88) and Virginia Commonwealth University (1988-2003).
Vallentyne has written on a variety of topics in ethical theory and political philosophy, including consequentialism, contractarianism, moral dilemmas, responsibility, equality, self-ownership, liberty, and justice. He defends a version of equal opportunity for wellbeing left-libertarianism. He is an associate editor of the journal Ethics, and has edited the following books:
- Equality and Justice, Routledge, 2003 (6 volumes).
- The Origins of Left Libertarianism: An Anthology of Historical Writings, edited with Hillel Steiner, Palgrave Publishers Ltd., 2000.
- Left Libertarianism and Its Critics: The Contemporary Debate, edited with Hillel Steiner, Palgrave Publishers Ltd., 2000.
- Contractarianism and Rational Choice: Essays on David Gauthier’s Morals by Agreement, Cambridge University Press, 1991.