Peterborough (UK Parliament constituency)

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For other uses, see Peterborough (disambiguation).
Peterborough
Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Outline map
Boundary of Peterborough in Cambridgeshire.
Outline map
Location of Cambridgeshire within England.
County Cambridgeshire
Electorate 72,787 (December 2010)[1]
Current constituency
Created 1974 (1974)
Member of Parliament Stewart Jackson (Conservative)
Number of members One
19181974 (1974)
Number of members One
Type of constituency County constituency
1541–1918
Number of members 1541–1885: Two
1885–1918: One
Type of constituency Borough constituency
Overlaps
European Parliament constituency East of England

Peterborough is a borough constituency represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, sharing the name of a smaller constituency represented in the Parliament of England until 1707 and then in that of Great Britain until 1800. It elects one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election.

The serving Member is Conservative Stewart Jackson. He defeated Labour's Helen Clark in 2005, and was re-elected in 2010 with an increased majority.[2][3]

Boundaries[edit]

The City of Peterborough formed a parliamentary borough returning two Members in 1541. The rest of the Soke of Peterborough was part of the Northamptonshire parliamentary county, except the area south of the River Nene in the historic county of Huntingdonshire and Thorney, which was considered part of Cambridgeshire. Until 1832 when the whole of the parish of Saint John the Baptist was encompassed, the boundary, as far as is known, excluded the villages of Longthorpe, Dogsthorpe and Newark with Eastfield. The Great Reform Act did not affect the borough, while the rural portion of the Soke was included in the northern division of Northamptonshire. New Fletton was transferred from Huntingdonshire in 1868 and in 1918 the parliamentary borough was abolished and replaced with a new division of the parliamentary county of Northampton with the Soke of Peterborough,[4] including the whole of the Soke and neighbouring parts of the administrative county of Northamptonshire, extending down to and beyond Thrapston and Corby. This became a county constituency under the 1948 revisions, when the boundaries of the constituency were adjusted to correspond to those of the Soke and they remained much the same until 1970.[5] Peterborough became a borough constituency in 1974.

Following their review of parliamentary representation in Cambridgeshire in 2005, the Boundary Commission for England made minor alterations to the existing constituencies to deal with population changes. The electoral wards used to create the modified Peterborough constituency fought at the 2010 general election are: Bretton North, Bretton South, Central, Dogsthorpe, East, Eye and Thorney, Newborough, North, Park, Paston, Ravensthorpe, Walton, Werrington North, Werrington South, and West.[6] These changes increased the electorate from 64,893 to 70,640. On the enumeration date of 17 February 2000, the electoral quota for England was 69,934 voters per constituency.[7]

The Peterborough wards of Barnack, Fletton, Glinton and Wittering, Northborough, Orton Longueville, Orton Waterville, Orton with Hampton, Stanground Central, and Stanground East form part of the North West Cambridgeshire constituency created in 1997 from parts of Peterborough and Huntingdon constituencies. The serving member for North West Cambridgeshire is the Conservative, Shailesh Vara MP, who succeeded Sir Brian Mawhinney, former Secretary of State for Transport and Chairman of the Conservative Party, in 2005. Mawhinney, who had previously served as Member of Parliament for Peterborough from 1979, was created Baron Mawhinney, of Peterborough in the county of Cambridgeshire in 2005. Eye and Thorney was previously included in the North East Cambridgeshire (prior to 1983 Isle of Ely) constituency.

Franchise[edit]

The Guildhall, Cathedral Square (1669–1671), site of the former Market Place.

In the unreformed House of Commons to be either a candidate or an elector for a county seat, a man had to own (not rent) freehold property valued for the land tax at two pounds a year (women could neither vote nor stand for election). This was known as the 40/- freehold. The franchise for borough seats varied enormously. Originally in Peterborough the dean and chapter had claimed the franchise and held that only residents of Minster Precincts were burgesses. By the interregnum, the city was one of 37 boroughs in which suffrage was restricted to those paying scot and lot, a form of municipal taxation. In 1800 there were 2,000 registered voters in Northamptonshire and 400 in Peterborough. By 1835 this was 576, or about one per cent of the population.[8] Bribery was general until the introduction of the secret ballot under the Ballot Act 1872. Votes were cast by spoken declaration, in public, at the hustings, erected on the Market Place (now Cathedral Square).[9]

In 1832 the Great Reform Act enfranchised those who owned or leased land worth £10 or more and the Second Reform Act extended this to all householders paying £10 or more in rent per annum, effectively enfranchising the skilled working class, so by 1868 the percentage of voters in Peterborough had risen to about 20% of the population.[10] The Third Reform Act extended the provisions of the previous act to the counties and the Fourth Reform Act widened suffrage further by abolishing practically all property qualifications for men and by enfranchising women over 30 who met minimum property qualifications. This system, known as universal manhood suffrage, was first used in the 1918 general election. However, full electoral equality wouldn't occur until the Fifth Reform Act ten years later.

According to the 2001 census, the population count of Peterborough constituency is 95,103 persons, comprising 46,131 males and 48,972 females. 67.56% of those aged 16–74 are economically active, including 5.92% umemployed; a further 12.26% are retired and 3.08% students. Of a total 39,760 households, 63.80% are owner occupied, fewer than the regional (72.71%) and national (68.72%) averages.[11] Turnout at the 2005 general election was 41,194 or 61.0% of those eligible to vote, below the regional (63.6%) and national (61.3%) figures.

Members of Parliament[edit]

The Town Hall, Upper Bridge Street (1930–1933), formerly Narrow Street.

Peterborough sent two members to parliament for the first time in 1547. Before the civil war, many were relatives of the clergy; then for two hundred years after the restoration there was always a Fitzwilliam, or a Fitzwilliam nominee, sitting as member for Peterborough, making it a Whig stronghold.[12] Representation was reduced to one member under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885.[13] From the formal merger of the breakaway Liberal Unionists with the Conservatives in 1912 and the absorption of rural North Northamptonshire in 1918, Peterborough has been predominantly Conservative. The growth in the New Town from 1967 may in part account for Labour's victory here in 1974. Since its formation in 1997, North West Cambridgeshire has been one of the safest Conservative seats in the country. At the election which followed, Peterborough was ranked 93rd in the Conservatives's one hundred most vulnerable seats (the ones which the other parties must take if there is to be a change of government) and 73rd on Labour's target list.

In 1966, the closest poll in the city's history, Sir Harmar Nicholls held the seat by three votes after 17 recounts. Nicholls was the Conservative member from 1950 to 1974, when he lost in the October election of that year to Labour's Michael Ward, having held on by just 22 votes in the election eight months earlier.[14] After he lost his seat he was created Baron Harmar-Nicholls, of Peterborough in the county of Cambridgeshire and served, from 1979 to 1984, as Member of the European Parliament for Greater Manchester South. David Cecil, 6th Marquess of Exeter, winner of 400m hurdles at the 1928 Summer Olympics, member of the International Olympic Committee for 48 years and chairman of the organising committee of the 1948 Summer Olympics, was the Conservative member from 1931 to 1943. Lord Burghley, as he then was, succeeded the socialist writer and illustrator, Frank Horrabin, who was born in the city and elected under the leadership of Ramsay MacDonald in 1929.[15]

The most recent Labour MP for Peterborough, Helen Clark (née Brinton), won the seat in 1997. She was defeated at the 2005 general election, following which it was widely reported that Clark was planning to defect to the Conservative Party,[16] an announcement which was not popular locally.[17] However, by early June it emerged that while she had left the Labour Party, she had not in fact joined the Conservatives and did not intend to.[18]

One of the earliest incumbents, Sir Walter Mildmay, member for Peterborough from 1553 to 1554, subsequently became Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1559 to 1589. Later, in the nineteenth century, William Elliot, Whig member from 1802 until his death in 1819, was Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland between 1806 and 1807; the Hon. William Lamb (later the 2nd Viscount Melbourne), Whig member from 1816 to 1819, became Home Secretary in 1830 then Prime Minister from 1834 to 1841; and Sir James Scarlett (later the 1st Baron Abinger), Whig member from 1819 to 1830, was, from 1827, Attorney General for England and Wales.[19]

Parliamentary Borough 1547–1918[edit]

MPs 1542–1660[edit]

Election Senior Member Junior Member
1542 Sir Thomas Moyle[20]
1547 Sir Wymond Carew, died
and replaced in 1552 by
John Campanett[21]
Richard Pallady[22]
March 1553  ?  ?
Oct. 1553 Sir Walter Mildmay[23] Sir William FitzWilliam[24]
April 1554 John Gamlin (Gamblin, Gamlyn)[25] Giles Isham
Nov. 1554 William Liveley[26] Gilbert Bull
1555 Maurice Tyrell John Mountsteven
1558 Giles Isham Thomas Hussey
1559 Sir William FitzWilliam Robert Wingfield, Jr.
1562 John FitzWilliam[disambiguation needed]
1571 Sir William FitzWilliam Henry Cheke, sat for Bedford
and replaced by
Brian Ansley
1572 Robert Wingfield, Jr., died
and replaced in 1581 by
Sir William FitzWilliam
Hugh FitzWilliam died
and replaced 1576 by
Humphrey Mildmay
1584 Sir William FitzWilliam[27] James Scambler
1586 Thomas Hacke
1589 Sir Thomas Reede Thomas Howland
1593 William Hacke
1597 John Wingfield Alexander Neville
1601 Nicholas Tufton Goddard Pemberton
1603 Sir Richard Cecil of Wakerley Edward Wymarke
1614 Sir William Walter Roger Manwood
1621 Mildmay Fane[28] Walter Fitzwilliam
1624 Sir Francis Fane[29] Laurence Whitaker
1625 Sir Christopher Hatton
1626 Mildmay Fane, Lord Burghersh
1628
The Short Parliament (April–May 1640)
April 1640 David Cecil William FitzWilliam, 2nd Baron FitzWilliam
The Long Parliament (1640–1648), the Rump Parliament (1648–1653) and the Barebone's Parliament (1653)
Nov. 1640 William FitzWilliam, 2nd Baron FitzWilliam Sir Robert Napier, 2nd Baronet
The First Protectorate Parliament (1654–1655); one member only
1654 Col. Alexander Blake[30]
The Second (1656–1658) and Third (1659) Protectorate Parliaments
1656 Col. Alexander Blake Francis St John

MPs 1660–1883[edit]

The Tories (or Abhorrers) and Whigs (or Petitioners) originated in the Court and Country parties that emerged in the aftermath of the civil war, although it is more accurate to describe them as loose tendencies, both of which might be regarded as conservative in modern terms.[31] Modern party politics did not really begin to coalesce in Great Britain until at least 1784.

Election First Member[32] 1st Party Second Member[32] 2nd Party
The Rump Parliament recalled (1659) and the Long Parliament restored (1660)
1660 Sir Humphrey Orme[33] Court Charles Fane, Lord le Despencer Country
1666 Edward Palmer[34] Whig
1667 William FitzWilliam, 3rd Baron FitzWilliam[35] Whig
1671 Sir Vere Fane Whig
Feb. 1679 Francis St John Whig
Aug. 1679 Charles Orme Whig
1681 William FitzWilliam, 3rd Baron FitzWilliam Whig
1685 Charles FitzWilliam Whig Charles Orme Whig
1688 Sir Gilbert Dolben, 1st Baronet[36] Whig
1689 Sir William Brownlow, 4th Baronet Whig
1698 Hon. Sidney Wortley-Montagu Whig Francis St John Whig
1701 Sir Gilbert Dolben, 1st Baronet Whig
1710 John FitzWilliam, Viscount Miltown Whig Charles Parker Tory
1722 Hon. Sidney Wortley-Montagu Whig
1727 Sir Edward O'Bryan, 2nd Baronet[37] Tory
1727 Hon. Sidney Wortley-Montagu Whig
1728 by-election Joseph Banks Whig
1729 by-election Charles Gounter-Nicoll Whig
Jan. 1734 by-election Armstead Parker Tory
April 1734 Sir Edward Wortley Montagu Whig
1741 William FitzWilliam, 3rd Earl FitzWilliam Whig
1742 by-election Armstead Parker Tory
1747 Sir Matthew Lamb, 1st Baronet[38] Whig
1761 Armstead Parker Tory
March 1768 Matthew Wyldbore Whig
Nov. 1768 by-election Henry Belasyse, Viscount Belasyse Whig
1774 by-election Richard Benyon Whig
1780 James Farrel Phipps Whig
1786 by-election Hon. Lionel Damer Whig
1796 Dr. French Laurence[39] Whig
1802 William Elliot Whig
1809 by-election Francis Russell, Marquess of Tavistock Whig
1812 George Ponsonby[40] Whig
1816 by-election Hon. William Lamb[41] Whig
Feb. 1819 by-election Sir James Scarlett[42] Whig
Nov. 1819 by-election Sir Robert Heron, 2nd Baronet[43] Whig
Aug. 1830 Charles Wentworth-FitzWilliam, Viscount Milton[44] Whig
Nov. 1830 by-election John Nicholas Fazakerley Whig
1841 Hon. George Wentworth-FitzWilliam Whig
1847 Hon. William Cavendish Whig
1852 Hon. Richard Watson Whig
1852 by-election George Hammond Whalley[45] Whig
1853 by-election Thomson Hankey[46] Whig
1859 George Hammond Whalley Liberal
1868 William Wells[47] Liberal
1874 Thomson Hankey Liberal
1878 by-election Hon. John Wentworth-FitzWilliam Liberal
1880 George Hampden Whalley[48] Liberal
1883 by-election Sir Sydney Buxton[49] Liberal
1885 representation reduced to one member

MPs 1885–1918[edit]

In 1832 the Tory Party evolved into the Conservative Party and in 1859 the Whig Party evolved, with Radicals and Peelites, into the Liberal Party. In opposition to Irish home rule, the Liberal Unionists ceded from the Liberals in 1886, aligning themselves with the Conservatives. The Labour Party was later founded, as the Labour Representation Committee, in 1900.

Election Member[32] Party
1885 Hon. John Wentworth-FitzWilliam Independent Liberal / Liberal Unionist[50]
1889 by-election Sir Alpheus Cleophas Morton Liberal
1895 Sir Robert Purvis Liberal Unionist / Conservative
1906 Sir Granville Greenwood[51] Liberal
1918 parliamentary borough abolished

Division and County Constituency[edit]

The parliamentary borough of Peterborough was abolished under the Representation of the People Act 1918, and the name was transferred to a division of the new parliamentary county of Northampton with the Soke of Peterborough.[4] The Peterborough division became a county constituency in 1950.

MPs 1918–1974[edit]

Election Member[32] Party
1918 Sir Henry Brassey, 1st Baronet[52] Coalition Conservative
1929 James Francis Horrabin[53] Labour
1931 David Cecil, Lord Burghley[54] Conservative and Unionist
1943 by-election John Hely-Hutchinson, Viscount Suirdale Conservative and Unionist
1945 Stanley Tiffany Labour Co-operative
1950 Sir Harmar Nicholls, 1st Baronet[55] Conservative and Unionist
Feb. 1974 county constituency abolished

Borough Constituency[edit]

Peterborough was redefined as a borough constituency with effect from the February 1974 general election.[56] Successors of the historic parliamentary boroughs, the spending limits for election campaigns are slightly lower than in county constituencies.

MPs since 1974[edit]

Election Member[32] Party
Feb. 1974 Sir Harmar Nicholls, 1st Baronet[56] Conservative
Oct. 1974 Michael Ward Labour
1979 Sir Brian Mawhinney Conservative
1997 Helen Clark Labour
2005 Stewart Jackson Conservative

Election results[edit]

General Election 2015: Peterborough [57]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Lisa Forbes
UKIP Mary Herdman
Conservative Stewart Jackson
Liberal Democrat


Election Political result Candidate Party Votes % ±%
General Election 2010
Turnout: 44,927 (63.9%) +4.8
Conservative hold
Majority: 4,861 (10.8%) +4.2
Swing: -0.9% from Con to Lab
Stewart Jackson Conservative 18,133 40.4 -2.9
Ed Murphy Labour 13,272 29.5 -4.8
Nick Sandford Liberal Democrat 8,816 19.6 +2.9
Frances Fox UKIP 3,007 6.7 +3.5
Rob King English Democrats 770 1.7 N/A
Fiona Radic Green 523 1.2 N/A
John Swallow Independent 406 0.9 N/A
General Election 2005
Turnout: 41,194 (61.0%) -0.4
Conservative gain from Labour
Majority: 2,730 (6.6%) N/A
Swing: -7.0% from Con to Lab
Stewart Jackson Conservative 17,364 42.1 +4.1
Helen Clark Labour 14,624 35.5 -9.6
Nick Sandford Liberal Democrat 6,876 16.7 +2.2
Mary Herdman UKIP 1,242 3.0 +0.6
Terry Blackham National Front 931 2.3 N/A
Marc Potter Independent 167 0.4 N/A
General Election 2001
Turnout: 39,812 (61.4%) -11.4
Labour hold
Majority: 2,854 (7.1%) -8.0
Swing: -4.0% from Lab to Con
Helen Brinton Labour 17,975 45.1 -5.2
Stewart Jackson Conservative 15,121 38.0 +2.8
Nick Sandford Liberal Democrat 5,761 14.5 +3.8
Julian Fairweather UKIP 955 2.4 +1.7
General Election 1997
Turnout: 48,427 (72.8%) -2.3
Labour gain from Conservative
Majority: 7,323 (15.1%) N/A
Swing: -13.4% from Con to Lab
Helen Brinton Labour 24,365 50.3 +10.1
Jacqueline Foster Conservative 17,042 35.2 -13.1
David Howarth Liberal Democrat 5,170 10.7 +2.8
Philip Slater Referendum Party 924 1.91 N/A
Charles Brettell Natural Law 334 0.7 +0.4
John Linskey UKIP 317 0.7 N/A
Stephen Goldspink ProLife Alliance 275 0.6 N/A
General Election 1992
Turnout: 65,840 (75.1%)
Conservative hold
Majority: 5,376 (8.1%) -7.6
Swing: -3.8% from Con to Lab
Brian Mawhinney Conservative 31,827 48.3 -1.1
Julie Owens Labour 26,451 40.2 +6.5
Amanda Taylor Liberal Democrat 5,208 7.9 -8.2
Erbie Murat Liberal 1,557 2.4 N/A
Richard Heaton BNP 311 0.5 N/A
Pamela Beasley Independent 271 0.4 N/A
Charles Brettell Natural Law 215 0.3 N/A
General Election 1987
Turnout: 61,951 (73.5%) +0.2
Conservative hold
Majority: 9,784 (15.7%) -2.4
Swing: -1.2% from Con to Lab
Brian Mawhinney Conservative 30,624 49.4 +2.3
Andrew MacKinlay Labour 20,840 33.7 +4.7
D.W. Green Liberal 9,984 16.1 N/A
N.A. Callaghan Green 506 0.8 -0.1
General Election 1983
Turnout: 57,909 (73.3%) -4.6
Conservative hold
Majority: 10,439 (18.1%)
Swing: -4.6% from Lab to Con
Brian Mawhinney Conservative 27,270 47.1 -1.7
B.W. Fish Labour 16,831 29.0 -10.8
Lady Walston Social Democratic 13,142 22.7 N/A
N.A. Callaghan Ecology 511 0.9 N/A
D.E. Hyland Workers Revolutionary 155 0.3 N/A
General Election 1979
Turnout: 77.94%
Conservative gain from Labour
Majority: 5,102 (8.98%)
Brian Mawhinney Conservative 27,734 48.80
Michael Ward Labour 22,632 39.82
D Green Liberal 5,685 10.00
J Wilhelmy National Front 672 1.18
M Bishop Workers Revolutionary 106 0.19
General Election October 1974
Turnout: 77.87%
Labour gain from Conservative
Majority: 1,848 (3.76%)
Michael Ward Labour 21,820 44.45
Sir Harmar Nicholls Conservative 19,972 40.68
Peter J. Boizot Liberal 7,302 14.87
General Election February 1974
Turnout: 82.32%
Conservative hold
Majority: 22 (0.04%)
Sir Harmar Nicholls Conservative 20,353 39.55
Michael Ward Labour 20,331 39.51
Peter J. Boizot Liberal 10,772
General Election 1970
Turnout: 78.49%
Conservative hold
Majority: 4,565 (8.17%)
Sir Harmar Nicholls Conservative 30,227 54.08
Michael Ward Labour 25,662 45.92
General Election 1966
Turnout: 81.42%
Conservative hold
Majority: 3 (0.01%)
Sir Harmar Nicholls Conservative 23,944 46.07
Michael Ward Labour 23,941 46.06
Basil E Goldstone Liberal 4,093 7.87
General Election 1964
Turnout: 81.76%
Conservative hold
Majority: 2,617 (5.07%)
Sir Harmar Nicholls Conservative 24,045 46.55
David Saunders Labour 21,428 41.48
Lawrence Young Liberal 6,181 11.97
General Election 1959
Turnout: 82.99%
Conservative hold
Majority: 4,584 (9.12%)
Harmar Nicholls Conservative 27,414 54.56
Betty Boothroyd Labour 22,830 45.44
General Election 1955
Turnout: 83.01%
Conservative hold
Majority: 3,238 (6.55%)
Harmar Nicholls Conservative 26,319 53.28
AEVA Farrer Labour 23,081 46.72
General Election 1951
Turnout: 86.80%
Conservative hold
Majority: 373 (0.73%)
Harmar Nicholls Conservative 24,536 48.05
AEVA Farrer Labour 24,163 47.32
Wolf Isaac Akst Liberal 2,367 4.64
General Election 1950
Turnout: 86.37%
Conservative gain from Labour
Majority: 144 (0.29%)
Harmar Nicholls Conservative 22,815 45.94
Stanley Tiffany Labour 22,671 45.65
Wolf Isaac Akst Liberal 4,180 8.42

Elections in the 1940s[edit]

General Election 1945: Peterborough[58]

Electorate 59,763

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Stanley Tiffany 22,056 50.7
Conservative Viscount Suirdale 21,485 49.3
Majority 571 1.3
Turnout 72.9
Conservative hold Swing
Peterborough by-election, 1943[59]

Electorate 47,947

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Viscount Suirdale 11,976 52.4
Independent Labour Samuel Bennett 10,890 47.6
Majority 1,086
Turnout
Conservative hold Swing

General Election 1939/40: Another general election was required to take place before the end of 1940. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected;

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

General Election 1935: Peterborough[61]

Electorate 49,573

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Lord Burghley 22,677 56.6
Labour Ernest A J Davies 17,373 43.4
Majority 5,304 13.2
Turnout 40,050 80.8
Conservative hold Swing
General Election 1931: Peterborough[62]

Electorate 47,947

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Lord Burghley 26,640 65.2
Labour James Francis Horrabin 14,206 34.8
Majority 12,434 30.4
Turnout 40.846 85.2
Conservative gain from Labour Swing

Elections in the 1920s[edit]

General Election 1929: Peterborough[63]

Electorate 46,704

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour James Francis Horrabin 14,743
Unionist Sir Henry Leonard Campbell Brassey 14,218
Liberal James William Francis Hill 8,704
Majority 525
Turnout
Labour gain from Unionist Swing
General Election 1924: Peterborough[64]

Electorate 36,461

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Unionist Sir Henry Leonard Campbell Brassey 14,195
Labour John Mansfield 9,180
Liberal Daniel Boyle 4,786
Majority 5,087
Turnout
Unionist hold Swing
General Election 1923: Peterborough[65]

Electorate 36,049

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Unionist Sir Henry Leonard Campbell Brassey 11,634
Liberal Daniel Boyle 7,014
Labour John Mansfield 8,177
Majority 3,457
Turnout
Unionist hold Swing
General Election 1922 : Peterborough[66]

Electorate 35,393

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Unionist Sir Henry Leonard Campbell Brassey 13,560
Labour John Mansfield 8,668
Liberal George Nicholls 6,290
Majority
Turnout
Unionist hold Swing

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

General Election 1918 Peterborough[67]

Electorate 34,676

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Unionist
  1. Maj. Henry Leonard Campbell Brassey
9,516
Labour John Mansfield 8,832
Liberal Thomas Ivatt Slater 3,214
Majority
Turnout
Unionist hold Swing

A # denotes candidate who was endorsed by the Coalition Government.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Electorate Figures – Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 13 March 2011. 
  2. ^ ELECTION 2005: Jackson says he's ready to fight[dead link] Peterborough Evening Telegraph, 7 May 2005
  3. ^ Target Seats UK Polling Report (retrieved 19 August 2008)
  4. ^ a b Fraser, Hugh (1918). The Representation of the People Act 1918, with Explanatory notes. London: Sweet and Maxwell. pp. 515–516. 
  5. ^ Youngs, Frederic A. Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England Volume II: Northern England (Part III: Parliamentary Constituencies) Royal Historical Society, London, 1991
  6. ^ Clegg QC, William Final Recommendations for Parliamentary Constituencies in the Counties of Cambridgeshire and Peterborough[dead link] Boundary Commission for England, 19 January 2005
  7. ^ Clegg QC, William General Review of Parliamentary Constituency boundaries in Cambridgeshire and Peterborough[dead link] Assistant Commissioner's report to the chairman and Members of the Boundary Commission for England, 18 March 2004
  8. ^ Knight, Charles Peterborough in 1840 Old Towns of England Originally published in The Penny Magazine by The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge
  9. ^ Forrester, E.G. Northamptonshire County Elections and Electioneering 1695–1832 Oxford University Press, 1941
  10. ^ Pelling, Henry Mathison A Social Geography of British Elections 1885–1910 (pp.96–97 & 106–124) Macmillan, London, 1967
  11. ^ 2001 Census Area Statistics Office for National Statistics, April 2001
  12. ^ Wentworth-Fitzwilliam family of Milton[dead link] Peterborough City Council (retrieved 22 September 2007)
  13. ^ Tebbs, Herbert F. Peterborough: A History (pp.192–194) The Oleander Press, Cambridge, 1979. See also Bromund, Ted A Complete Fool's Paradise: The Attack on the Fitzwilliam Interest in Peterborough 1852 Parliamentary History, vol.12 no.1 (pp.47–67) Edinburgh University Press, 1993 and Howarth, Janet The Liberal Revival in Northamptonshire 1880–1895: A Case Study in Late Nineteenth Century Elections The Historical Journal, vol.12 no.1 (pp.78–118) Cambridge University Press, 1969
  14. ^ The Liberal candidate was Peter J. Boizot, founder of the Pizza Express restaurant chain and now Deputy Lieutenant of Cambridgeshire
  15. ^ Craig, Frederick Walter Scott British Parliamentary Election Results 1832–1970 (4 vols.) Macmillan, London, 1971–1977 and Stenton, Michael and Lees, Stephen (eds.) Who's Who of British members of parliament 1832–1979: a biographical dictionary of the House of Commons based on annual volumes of Dod's Parliamentary Companion and other sources (4 vols.) Harvester Press, Hassocks, 1976–1981
  16. ^ Ousted MP defects to the Tories BBC News, 8 May 2005 17:35 BST
  17. ^ POLITICS: 'A slap in the face'[dead link] Peterborough Evening Telegraph, 9 May 2005
  18. ^ Moss, Stephen Thrown out of the house The Guardian, 1 June 2005
  19. ^ The History of Parliament The House of Commons: 1509–1558 (3 vols.) Bindoff, S.T., 1558–1603 (3 vols.) Hasler, P.W., 1660–1690 (3 vols.) Henning, Basil Duke, 1715–1754 (2 vols.) Sedgwick, Romney, 1754–1790 (2 vols.) Namier, Sir Lewis Bernstein and Brooke, John, 1790–1820 (5 vols.) Thorne, R.G. Martin Secker and Warburg (reissued by Her Majesty's Stationery Office) for the History of Parliament Trust, London, 1964–1986
  20. ^ "History of Parliament". Retrieved 12 October 2011. 
  21. ^ Carter, P. R. N. Carew, Sir Wymond (1498–1549) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/61138, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  22. ^ Airs, Malcolm Pallady, Richard (b. 1515/16, d. in or before 1563) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/21163, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  23. ^ Ford, L. L. Mildmay, Sir Walter (1520/21–1589) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/18696, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  24. ^ Riordan, Michael Henry VIII, privy chamber of (act. 1509–1547) Sir William Fitzwilliam (c.1506–1559) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/70829, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  25. ^ Bindoff, op. cit. (p.186). Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  26. ^ Bindoff, op. cit. (p.537). Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 21 July 2012. 
  27. ^ Lyons, Mary Ann Fitzwilliam, Sir William (1526–1599) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9664, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  28. ^ Wright, Stephen Fane, Mildmay, second earl of Westmorland (1602–1666) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9139, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  29. ^ Mercer, Malcolm Fane, Sir Thomas (d. 1589) Francis Fane, first earl of Westmorland (1583/4–1629) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9130, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  30. ^ "Humphrey Orme was elected ... and there was an immediate complaint against his sitting on the grounds that he was neither a good puritan nor a stable parliamentarian;" see Tebbs, op. cit. (p.94). "Although its election committee certainly received and examined evidence concerning a disputed and possibly double return at Peterborough, it is not clear what part, if any, the Council played in the final decision in favour of Alexander Blake;" see Gaunt, Peter Cromwell’s Purge? Exclusions and the First Protectorate Parliament (p.16) Parliamentary History, vol.6 no.1 (pp.1–22) May 1987. "The defeated candidate ... had allegedly been supported by disaffected and disqualified voters; Orme himself had married a recusant and was probably a Royalist sympathiser;" Ibid. at footnote 80 (p.21)
  31. ^ Both terms were originally pejorative, deriving respectively from tóraidhe, one of the dispossessed Irish who became outlaws and whiggamor, a Scots Gaelic word for a cattle or horse drover
  32. ^ a b c d e Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "P" (part 1)[self-published source][better source needed]
  33. ^ Double return between Lord le Despencer and Francis St John. Lord le Despencer declared elected
  34. ^ Unseated on petition in favour of Baron Fitzwilliam of Milton Hall in 1667
  35. ^ Hainsworth, D. R. Fitzwilliam, William, first Earl Fitzwilliam in the peerage of Ireland (1643–1719) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/67100, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  36. ^ Rigg, J. M. Dolben, Sir Gilbert, first baronet (1658/9–1722) (rev. D. W. Hayton) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/7774, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  37. ^ "Charles Parker ... in 1728, was High Sheriff of Northamptonshire and at that time not pro-Fitzwilliam. His action at the election of that year led to a case before the Bar of the House of Commons to settle a controversy over the powers of the Bailiffs of the City [and of the Soke] as returning officer at the election. Parker, as Sheriff, sent the election writ to Robert Smith, the Bailiff of the Liberty who returned Earl Fitzwilliam [at that time in the Peerage of Ireland only] and an unknown nominee of [the Earl of Exeter] ... James Pix, the City's Bailiff, contested the return and won, so the sitting members ... were declared elected," even though Wortley Montagu had died six months earlier; see Tebbs, op. cit. (p.95) which incorrectly refers to Sidney's son Edward Wortley Montagu
  38. ^ Turner, Roger Lamb, Sir Matthew, first baronet (1705?–1768) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/15919, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  39. ^ Lambert, Elizabeth R. Laurence, French (1757–1809) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/16126, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  40. ^ Kelly, James Ponsonby, George (1755–1817) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/22495, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  41. ^ Mandler, Peter Lamb, William, second Viscount Melbourne (1779–1848) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/15920, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  42. ^ Barker, G. F. R. Scarlett, James, first Baron Abinger (1769–1844) (rev. Elisabeth A. Cawthon) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/24783, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  43. ^ Courtney, W. P. Heron, Sir Robert, second baronet (1765–1854) (rev. H. C. G. Matthew) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/13091, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  44. ^ Smith, G. B. Fitzwilliam, Charles William Wentworth, third Earl Fitzwilliam in the peerage of Great Britain and fifth Earl Fitzwilliam in the peerage of Ireland (1786–1857) (rev. H. C. G. Matthew) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9653, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  45. ^ Wallis, Frank H. Whalley, George Hammond (1813–1878) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29158, retrieved 6 October 2007). Unseated on petition in 1853; at the subsequent by-election he was again returned, but his election was again declared void
  46. ^ Courtney, W. P. Hankey, Thomson (1805–1893) (rev. A. C. Howe) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12197, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  47. ^ Clarke, Ernest Wells, William (1818–1889) (rev. John Martin) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29019, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  48. ^ Resigned by becoming Steward of the Manor of Northstead in 1883 and was adjudged bankrupt later that year
  49. ^ Waley, Daniel Buxton, Sydney Charles, Earl Buxton (1853–1934) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/32224, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  50. ^ Pelling, loc. cit. confirms that Wentworth-Fitzwilliam contested the election against an official Liberal candidate and that the Conservative candidate withdrew in his favour. He became a Liberal Unionist the following year and died as a result of a riding accident in 1889
  51. ^ Ryder, Richard D. Greenwood, Sir Granville George (1850–1928) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/41162, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  52. ^ Sitting member for North Northants. from 1910
  53. ^ Cole, Margaret Horrabin, James Francis (1884–1962) (rev. Amanda L. Capern) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33995, retrieved 6 October 2007)
  54. ^ McWhirter, Norris Cecil, David George Brownlow, sixth marquess of Exeter (1905–1981) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Oxford University Press, 2004 (subscription required doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30910, retrieved 6 October 2007). Resigned his seat in 1943 when he was appointed Governor of Bermuda
  55. ^ Roth, Andrew Lord Harmar-Nicholls: Self-made Tory peer more adept at business than politics The Guardian, 18 September 2000
  56. ^ a b The London Gazette: no. 46229. p. 2987. 7 March 1974. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
  57. ^ http://ukpollingreport.co.uk/2015guide/Peterborough/
  58. ^ Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.
  59. ^ Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.
  60. ^ Report of the Annual Conference of the Labour Party, 1939
  61. ^ Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.
  62. ^ Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.
  63. ^ Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.
  64. ^ Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.
  65. ^ Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.
  66. ^ Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.
  67. ^ Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 52°35′N 0°15′W / 52.583°N 0.250°W / 52.583; -0.250