The oldest document of the village comes from the year 1392. However, the village was inhabited for a long time before. Archeological studies evidenced the existence of Celtic and Roman settlements. Those were further replaced by the Slavs in the 9th century. In that time, the municipality and surroundings were part of the Great Moravia. At the end of the 11th century the village became part of the Hungarian Kingdom.
The name of the village comes from Peter Varády, an important Hungarian aristocrat who came to the village in the year 1093. Therefore, the village was named Peterlak in Hungarian, Petrovilla in Latin and Petersdorf in German. Since the end of World War I, the former Czechoslovak state proclaimed the name Petrova Ves as the official name of the village.