Petrozavodsk

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For other uses of "Petrozavodsk", see Petrozavodsk (disambiguation).
Petrozavodsk (English)
Петрозаводск (Russian)
Petroskoi (Karelian)
-  City[1]  -
House on the Karl Marx avenue (Petrozavodsk).JPG
Karla Marksa Avenue in Petrozavodsk
Map of Russia - Republic of Karelia (2008-03).svg
Location of the Republic of Karelia in Russia
Petrozavodsk is located in Karelia
Petrozavodsk
Petrozavodsk
Location of Petrozavodsk in the Republic of Karelia
Coordinates: 61°47′N 34°20′E / 61.783°N 34.333°E / 61.783; 34.333Coordinates: 61°47′N 34°20′E / 61.783°N 34.333°E / 61.783; 34.333
Coat of Arms of Petrozavodsk (Karelia).png
Flag of Petrozavodsk (Karelia).png
Coat of Arms
Flag
City Day Last Saturday of June[citation needed]
Administrative status (as of April 2013)
Country Russia
Federal subject Republic of Karelia[2]
Administratively subordinated to city of republic significance of Petrozavodsk[1]
Capital of Republic of Karelia[1]
Administrative center of city of republic significance of Petrozavodsk,[1] Prionezhsky District[1]
Municipal status (as of November 2011)
Urban okrug Petrozavodsky Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Petrozavodsky Urban Okrug,[3] Prionezhsky Municipal District[4]
Head[citation needed] Galina Shirshina[citation needed]
Representative body City Council[citation needed]
Statistics
Area 135 km2 (52 sq mi)[5]
Population (2010 Census) 261,987 inhabitants[6]
Rank in 2010 71st
Density 1,941/km2 (5,030/sq mi)[7]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[8]
Founded 1703[citation needed]
City status since 21 March, 1777[citation needed]
Previous names Petrovskaya Sloboda (until 1777),[citation needed]
Petrozavodsk (until 1941),[citation needed]
Äänislinna (until 1944)[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[9] 185000–185003, 185005, 185007, 185009–185016, 185019, 185023, 185026, 185028, 185030–185035, 185700, 185890, 185899, 185910, 185960–185963, 185965, 185970, 185980–185983, 185985
Dialing code(s) +7 8142[citation needed]
Official website
Petrozavodsk on WikiCommons

Petrozavodsk (Russian: Петрозаводск; IPA: [pʲɪtrəzɐˈvotsk]; Karelian/Vepsian/Finnish: Petroskoi) is the capital city of the Republic of Karelia, Russia, which stretches along the western shore of Lake Onega for some 27 kilometers (17 mi). Population: 261,987 (2010 Census);[6] 266,160 (2002 Census);[10] 269,485 (1989 Census).[11]

History[edit]

Archeological discoveries in the urban area indicate the presence of a settlement as far back as seven thousand years ago, and during the Middle Ages the site of modern city was marked by several lakeside villages. Within the city limits, the district of Solomennoje appears in surviving records dating back to the sixteenth century, and a map produced by the Flemish cartographer Abraham Ortelius at the end of that century places a settlement called, here, Onegaborg on the site of modern Petrozavodsk.[12]

On September 11, 1703, Prince Menshikov founded the settlement of Petrovskaya Sloboda ("Petrine Sloboda"). He did so at the behest of Tsar Peter the Great, who needed a new iron foundry to manufacture cannons and anchors for the Baltic Fleet at the time of the Great Northern War (1700–1721). At first the foundry used the name Shuysky zavod (literally, "factory at the Shuya River"), but a decade later it became Petrovsky zavod ("Petrine factory"), after the name of the reigning monarch. From this form the present name of the city derives.

By 1717, Petrovskaya Sloboda had grown into the largest settlement in Karelia, with about 3,500 inhabitants, a timber fort, a covered market, and miniature palaces of the Tsar and Menshikov. The town's best-known landmark became the wooden church of Saints Peter and Paul, rebuilt in 1772 and renovated in 1789. The church retained its original iconostasis until this relic of Peter's reign was destroyed by fire on October 30, 1924.

After Peter's death, Petrovskaya Sloboda became depopulated and the factory declined. It closed down in 1734, although foreign industrialists maintained copper factories in the vicinity.

The industry revived in 1773 when Catherine the Great established a new iron foundry upstream the Lososinka River. Designed to provide cannons for the ongoing Russo-Turkish Wars, the foundry was named Alexandrovsky, after Alexander Nevsky, who was considered a patron saint of the region. The factory was modernized and expanded under supervision of Charles Gascoigne in 1787–96. Local pundits claim that the first railway in the world (чугунный колесопровод) was inaugurated for industrial uses of the Alexandrovsky foundry in 1788.

A church in Petrozavodsk, as photographed ca. 1912 by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky
Round Square in central Petrozavodsk

During Catherine's municipal reform of 1777, Petrovskaya Sloboda was incorporated as a town, whereupon its name was changed to Petrozavodsk. A new Neoclassical city center was then built, focused on the newly planned Round Square. In 1784 Petrozavodsk was large enough to supplant Olonets as the administrative center of the region. Although Emperor Paul abolished Olonets Governorate, it was revived as a separate guberniya in 1801, with Petrozavodsk as its administrative center.

During the Finnish occupation of East Karelia in the Continuation War (1941–1944), the occupier chose to style the city Äänislinna (or Ääneslinna), rather than the traditional Petroskoi. The new name was a literal translation of Onegaborg, the name of a settlement marked on a 16th-century map by Abraham Ortelius near the present-day city, Ääninen being the Finnish toponym for Lake Onega.[citation needed]

The city was occupied by Finnish troops for nearly three years before it was retaken by Soviet forces on June 28, 1944. The Finns set up concentration camps for the civilians which they operated until the Red Army reoccupied the area. The first camp was located at Petrozavodsk (October 24, 1940). Six such camps were set up in Petrozavodsk, with about 25,000 women, children and old people confined in them. Some of the camps were old soviet union camps and some only fenced city areas. One source estimated 4,000 people perished there, primarily because of malnourishment, most dying during the spring and summer of 1942.

In 1977, Petrozavodsk was the siege of what is called the Petrozavodsk phenomenon.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Petrozavodsk is the capital of the republic and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Prionezhsky District,[1] even though it is not a part of it.[2] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of republic significance of Petrozavodsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Petrozavodsk is incorporated as Petrozavodsky Urban Okrug.[3]

Landmarks[edit]

Petrozavodsk is distinguished among other towns of North Russia by its Neoclassical architectural heritage, which includes the Round Square (1775, reconstructed in 1789 and 1839) and the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (consecrated in 1832). Among the town's landmarks are the outdoor statues of Peter I (bronze and granite, Ippolit Monighetti, 1873), Gavrila Derzhavin (a Russian poet who was the governor of Olonets in the 18th century), and Alexander Nevsky (erected outside Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in 2010).

The city has a fine frontage on the Gulf of Petrozavodsk. The modern embankment, inaugurated in 1994, displays an assortment of Karelian granites and marbles. It is lined with extravagant postmodernist sculptures presented by sister cities of Petrozavodsk from around the world. There is also a birch copse, where the first church of Petrozavodsk was built in 1703.

Petrozavodsk is home to the Karelia Philharmonic Orchestra (1933)[1], the Karelian Musical Theater (1955, statuary by Sergey Konenkov), National Library of Karelia (1959), Finnish-speaking National Theater of Karelia (1965), Petrozavodsk State University, a conservatory, a city museum founded in 1871, and a branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

One of the city's central landmarks is Lenin Square, an oval space with a large Soviet-era statue of Lenin in the center. The square is especially notable for English-speaking visitors because it is also called "round square" - a paradox in English, but not in Russian (kruglaya ploshad).

Suburbs[edit]

Statue of fishermen on the Onega embankment

The village of Shoksha near Petrozavodsk contains a quarry of red and pink quartzite which was used in construction of Saint Isaac's Cathedral and Lenin Mausoleum, among many other notable structures. There are also other quarries in the region excavating road aggregates (Goloday Gora – gabbro-diabase) near Derevyanka.

The suburb of Martsialnye Vody is the oldest spa in Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1714 and visited by the Tsar on four occasions. Its name means "The Waters of Mars" in Russian. Although Peter's palace at Martsialnye Vody has not survived, there is a museum devoted to the spa's history.

From Petrozavodsk harbor a hydrofoil service of "KareliaFlot" company carries people to the island of Kizhi, a World Heritage Site with an outdoor museum of ancient wooden architecture.

Transportation[edit]

The city is served by the Petrozavodsk Airport, and a train station on the Murmansk Railway with train connections to the main population centers of Russia.

Climate[edit]

Under the Köppen climate classification, Petrozavodsk experiences a subarctic climate (Dfc, one to three months with mean temperatures of +10 °C (50 °F) or greater), though with winters that are less severe than in many localities with this type of climate, thanks to the moderating influence of the Baltic Sea and the many nearby lakes. Winters, though long and cold, are mild for the high latitude, while summers are short and warm. Precipitation averages 581 mm (22.9 in) annually.

Climate data for Petrozavodsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.4
(41.7)
7.3
(45.1)
15.5
(59.9)
24.2
(75.6)
33.0
(91.4)
31.9
(89.4)
33.9
(93)
32.4
(90.3)
28.5
(83.3)
21.3
(70.3)
11.1
(52)
9.4
(48.9)
33.9
(93)
Average high °C (°F) −6.4
(20.5)
−5.9
(21.4)
−0.3
(31.5)
6.5
(43.7)
13.6
(56.5)
18.4
(65.1)
21.5
(70.7)
18.6
(65.5)
13.1
(55.6)
6.4
(43.5)
−0.5
(31.1)
−4.3
(24.3)
6.73
(44.12)
Daily mean °C (°F) −9.3
(15.3)
−9.1
(15.6)
−3.7
(25.3)
2.3
(36.1)
8.7
(47.7)
13.7
(56.7)
17.0
(62.6)
14.5
(58.1)
9.5
(49.1)
3.8
(38.8)
−2.8
(27)
−7
(19)
3.13
(37.64)
Average low °C (°F) −12.6
(9.3)
−12.3
(9.9)
−7
(19)
−1.6
(29.1)
3.9
(39)
9.0
(48.2)
12.5
(54.5)
10.7
(51.3)
6.3
(43.3)
1.4
(34.5)
−5.2
(22.6)
−9.9
(14.2)
−0.4
(31.3)
Record low °C (°F) −41.6
(−42.9)
−39.3
(−38.7)
−30
(−22)
−19.3
(−2.7)
−9.8
(14.4)
−2.6
(27.3)
−0.1
(31.8)
−1.7
(28.9)
−5
(23)
−13.4
(7.9)
−27.5
(−17.5)
−36.8
(−34.2)
−41.6
(−42.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 36
(1.42)
26
(1.02)
32
(1.26)
30
(1.18)
48
(1.89)
64
(2.52)
82
(3.23)
82
(3.23)
60
(2.36)
59
(2.32)
50
(1.97)
42
(1.65)
611
(24.06)
Snowfall cm (inches) 25
(9.8)
35
(13.8)
38
(15)
17
(6.7)
6
(2.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
5
(2)
11
(4.3)
17
(6.7)
154
(60.7)
Avg. rainy days 4 4 6 11 16 18 18 18 20 19 11 6 151
Avg. snowy days 22 20 15 5 1 0 0 0 1 4 15 22 105
Mean monthly sunshine hours 27.9 70.0 117.8 177.0 263.5 282.0 288.3 217.0 126.0 65.1 24.0 9.3 1,667.9
Source #1: Погода и Климат (Weather and Climate)[13]
Source #2: [14]

Notable people[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Yachting in Petrozavodsk
Petrozavodsk Drama Theater building

Petrozavodsk is twinned with:

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #871-ZRK
  2. ^ a b Constitution of the Republic of Karelia
  3. ^ a b c Law #824-ZRK
  4. ^ Law #825-ZRK
  5. ^ Петрозаводск. Официальный сайт (in Russian). Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2014. 
  6. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  7. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  8. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  9. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  10. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  12. ^ http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_geo/3842/%D0%9F%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B7%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B4%D1%81%D0%BA
  13. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net (Weather and Climate-The Climate of Petrozavodsk)" (in Russian). Weather and Climate. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  14. ^ HKO "Climatological Information for Cita, Russia." Hong Kong Observatory
  15. ^ "La Rochelle: Twin towns". www.ville-larochelle.fr. Retrieved November 7, 2009. 
  16. ^ Petrozavodsk City Administration. Official website

Sources[edit]

  • Верховный Совет Карельской АССР. №473-ЗРК 30 мая 1978 г. «Конституция Республики Карелия», в ред. Закона №1314-ЗРК от 16 июля 2009 г «О внесении изменений в Конституцию Республики Карелия». Опубликован: отдельной брошюрой. (Supreme Soviet of the Karelian ASSR. #473-ZRK May 30, 1978 Constitution of the Republic of Karelia, as amended by the Law #1314-ZRK of July 16, 2009 On Amending the Constitution of the Republic of Karelia. ).
  • Законодательное Собрание Республики Карелия. Закон №871-ЗРК от 29 апреля 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Карелия», в ред. Закона №1703-ЗРK от 30 апреля 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Карелия "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Карелия"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: газета "Карелия", №48, 7 мая 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia. Law #871-ZRK of April 29, 2005 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of Karelia, as amended by the Law #1703-ZRK of April 30, 2013 On Amending the Law of the Republic of Karelia "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of Karelia". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Республики Карелия. Закон №824-ЗРК от 1 декабря 2004 г. «О наделении городских поселений статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №1548-ЗРK от 3 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Республики Карелия "О наделении городских поселений статусом городского округа"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: газета "Карелия", №139, 9 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia. Law #824-ZRK of December 1, 2004 On Granting Urban Okrug Status to Urban Settlements, as amended by the Law #1548-ZRK of November 3, 2011 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of the Republic of Karelia "On Granting Urban Okrug Status to Urban Settlements". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Республики Карелия. Закон №825-ЗРК от 1 декабря 2004 г. «О муниципальных районах в Республике Карелия», в ред. Закона №1694-ЗРK от 2 апреля 2013 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований "Нюхчинское сельское поселение" и "Сумпосадское сельское поселение" Беломорского муниципального района и внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Карелия». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: газета "Карелия", №141, 16 декабря 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia. Law #825-ZRK of December 1, 2004 On the Municipal Districts in the Republic of Karelia, as amended by the Law #1694-ZRK of April 2, 2013 On the Transformation of the Municipal Formations of "Nyukhchinskoye Rural Settlement" and "Sumposadskoye Rural Settlement" of Belomorsky Municipal District of the Republic of Karelia and on Amending Various Legislative Acts of the Republic of Karelia. Effective as of the day which is ten days after the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]