Pechory

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Pechory (English)
Печоры (Russian)
Petseri (Estonian)
-  Town[1]  -
Map of Russia - Pskov Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Pskov Oblast in Russia
Pechory is located in Pskov Oblast
Pechory
Pechory
Location of Pechory in Pskov Oblast
Coordinates: 57°49′N 27°36′E / 57.817°N 27.600°E / 57.817; 27.600Coordinates: 57°49′N 27°36′E / 57.817°N 27.600°E / 57.817; 27.600
Coat of Arms of Pechory (Pskov oblast).png
Coat of arms of Pechory Urban Settlement
Administrative status (as of 2012)
Country Russia
Federal subject Pskov Oblast[1]
Administrative district Pechorsky District[1]
Administrative center of Pechorsky District[1]
Municipal status (as of December 2008)
Municipal district Pechorsky Municipal District[2]
Urban settlement Pechory Urban Settlement[2]
Administrative center of Pechorsky Municipal District[2]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 11,195 inhabitants[3]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[4]
Founded 16th century[5]
Town status since 1776[5]
Pechory on WikiCommons
Water tower in the center of Pechory

Pechory (Russian: Печоры; Estonian and Seto: Petseri; German: Petschur) is a town and the administrative center of Pechorsky District of Pskov Oblast, Russia. Its population in the 2010 Census was 11,195,[3] having fallen from 13,056 in the 2002 Census[6] and 11,935 in the 1989 Census.[7] This population includes a few hundred ethnic Estonians.

History[edit]

The town was founded as a posad near the monastery in the 16th century and soon developed into an important trading post.[5] During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, Pechory was an important border stronghold. It was besieged numerous times by Russia's enemies: Stefan Batory's forces sacked the settlement during the Siege of Pskov in 1581, and the Swedes or Polish stormed Pechory in 1592, 1611, 1615, and 1630, and from 1655 to 1657.

After the Great Northern War ended, Russians rebuilt the fortifications and Boris Sheremetev began his campaign of 1701 in Pechory. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off, and in 1772, Pskov Governorate was established. (Between 1777 and 1796, it existed as Pskov Viceroyalty). In 1776, Pechory was granted town status, and Pechorsky Uyezd was established, but in 1797, Pechorsky Uyezd was abolished, and the area was made a part of Pskovsky Uyezd of Pskov Governorate.[8]

In 1918, the settlement, which had been in oblivion for centuries, regained its status as a town.[citation needed] From February to December 1918, Pechory was occupied by the Germans. During the Estonian War of Independence, the town was occupied by the Estonian army on March 29, 1919. Under the terms of the Tartu Peace Treaty, Pechory and the territory around it, called Setomaa, were given to Estonia.

During the years between the First and the Second world wars, Petseri, as it was called at that time, was the center of Petserimaa (Petseri County), one of the eleven counties that made up the Republic of Estonia. Under Estonian rule, the town population grew by more than 2.5 times, predominantly due to arrival of ethnic Estonians. In May 1925, most of the land owned by Pskovo-Pechersky Monastery was confiscated by Estonian government. St. Peter's Lutheran Church was built in 1926. During World War II the town was occupied by the German Army from 10 July 1941 until 11 August 1944.

In 1944, after Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union, Pechory and most of Petseri county were transferred to Pskov Oblast of the Russian SFSR. In 1956, Pechory Secondary School No. 2 was opened for Estonian-speaking pupils.

After Estonian independence was re-established in 1991, the town, and the territory around it were claimed for Estonia because of the Tartu Peace Treaty, in which the Soviet Union had relinquished further claims on Estonian territory.[9] In November 1995, a report said that Estonia had dropped this claim.[10] A newer Estonian-Russian Border Treaty was signed by Estonia on May 18, 2005, reflecting the later border changes,[11] but was rejected and cancelled by Russia on June 27, 2005, because of references to Soviet occupation were added.[12][13]

Estonian Painter Alfred Hirv was a native of Pechory, as were writer Lilli Promet and footballer Jaanus Sirel.

Culture and recreation[edit]

Pechory is famous for the Russian Orthodox Pskovo-Pechersky Monastery.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 58 240 501», в ред. изменения №226/2013 от 1 января 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 58 240 501, as amended by the Amendment #226/2013 of January 1, 2014. ).
  2. ^ a b c Law #420-oz, Article 15.2
  3. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ a b c Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 354. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  6. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  7. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Печорский край" (in Russian). Псковский край. Retrieved June 11, 2012. 
  9. ^ Georg von Rauch (1974), The Baltic States: The Years of Independence, 1917–1940, London: C. Hurst & Co.
  10. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=dt2TXexiKTgC&pg=PT455&dq=%22Petseri+County%22&sig=ACfU3U2Md8I0JrpQE1wzxyESv-BsbixbnA#v=onepage&q=%22Petseri%20County%22&f=false
  11. ^ http://www.estemb.se/estonian_review/aid-427 Estonian Parliament ratifies Estonian-Russian border treaties
  12. ^ "Russia spurns Estonia border deal". BBC News. June 27, 2005. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  13. ^ Socor, Vladimir. "Russia cancels border treaty, assails Estonia". The Jameston Foundation. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 

Sources[edit]

  • Псковское областное Собрание депутатов. Закон №833-оз от 5 февраля 2009 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Псковской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Псковская правда", №20, 10 февраля 2009 г. (Pskov Oblast Council of Deputies. Law #833-oz of February 5, 2009 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Pskov Oblast. Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Псковское областное Собрание депутатов. Закон №420-оз от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ и статусе вновь образуемых муниципальных образований на территории Псковской области», в ред. Закона №1251-ОЗ от 7 февраля 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 24 Закона Псковской области "Об установлении границ и статусе вновь образуемых муниципальных образований на территории Псковской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Псковская правда", №41-43, №44-46, №49-51, 4 марта 2005 г., 5 марта 2005 г., 11 марта 2005 г. (Pskov Oblast Council of Deputies. Law #420-oz of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders and the Status of the Newly Formed Municipal Formations on the Territory of Pskov Oblast, as amended by the Law #1251-oz of February 7, 2013 On Amending Article 24 of the Law of Pskov Oblast "On Establishing the Borders and the Status of the Newly Formed Municipal Formations on the Territory of Pskov Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).

External links[edit]