Peyronie's disease

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Peyronie's disease
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 N48.6
ICD-9 607.85
OMIM 171000
DiseasesDB 29308
MedlinePlus 001278
eMedicine derm/851
MeSH D010411

Peyronie's disease or Peyronie disease (/prˈn/), also known as induratio penis plastica (IPP)[1] or chronic inflammation of the tunica albuginea (CITA), is a connective tissue disorder involving the growth of fibrous plaques[2] in the soft tissue of the penis affecting 5% of men.[3] Specifically, scar tissue forms in the tunica albuginea, the thick sheath of tissue surrounding the corpora cavernosa causing pain, abnormal curvature, erectile dysfunction, indentation, loss of girth and shortening.[4][5][6][7] A variety of treatments have been used, but none have been especially effective.

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Penis with Peyronie's disease
Chronic Peyronie's Disease Penis from top.
Abnormally curved penis

A certain degree of curvature of the penis is considered normal, as many men are born with this benign condition, commonly referred to as congenital curvature.

The disease may cause pain; hardened, big, cord-like lesions (scar tissue known as "plaques"); or abnormal curvature of the penis when erect due to chronic inflammation of the tunica albuginea (CITA). Although the popular conception of Peyronie's Disease is that it always involves curvature of the penis, the scar tissue sometimes causes divots or indentations rather than curvature. The condition may also make sexual intercourse painful and/or difficult, though many men report satisfactory intercourse in spite of the disorder.[citation needed] Although it can affect men of any race and age, it is most commonly seen in Caucasian males above the age of 40[citation needed], especially those of blood type A+, but has been seen in men as young as 18. The disorder is confined to the penis, although a substantial number of men with Peyronie's exhibit concurrent connective tissue disorders in the hand, and to a lesser degree, in the feet. About 30 percent of men with Peyronie's Disease develop fibrosis in other elastic tissues of the body, such as on the hand or foot, including Dupuytren's contracture of the hand. An increased incidence in genetically related males suggests a genetic component.[8]

Diagnosis[edit]

A urologist can diagnose the disease and suggest treatment, although it is easily diagnosed by general practitioners or family doctors.[citation needed] An ultrasound can provide conclusive evidence of Peyronie's disease, ruling out congenital curvature or other disorders.[9]

This ultrasound depicts cross sections of the penis at different locations in a patient with Peyronie's disease. The top image shows normal anatomy whereas the bottom image shows scar tissue on the tunica albuginea (penis). The scar tissue is localized and responsible for the hallmark deformities of Peyronie's disease (curvature and narrowing).

Causes[edit]

The underlying cause of Peyronie's Disease is not well understood, but is thought to be caused by trauma or injury to the penis usually through sexual activity although many patients often are unaware of any traumatic event or injury.[10]

Some beta blocker drugs list Peyronie's disease as a possible side effect.[10]

Treatment[edit]

Without treatment, about 12–13% of patients will spontaneously improve over time, 40–50% will get worse and the rest will be relatively stable. This is based on a survey of 97 men and therefore based on the subjective impression of the patients. No objective long term natural history via continual evaluation of patients has been recorded to date.[11]

Medication and supplements[edit]

Many oral treatments have been studied, but results so far have been mixed.[12] Some consider the use of non-surgical approaches to be "controversial".[13]

Collagenase clostridium histolyticum (marketed as Xiaflex by [Auxilium]), a drug originally approved by the FDA to treat Dupuytren's contracture, is now an FDA approved injectable drug for treatment of Peyronie's disease. The drug is reported to work by breaking down the excess collagen in the penis that causes Peyronie's disease.[14][15]

Vitamin E supplementation has been studied for decades, and some success has been reported in older trials, but those successes have not been reliably repeated in larger, newer studies.[16] A combination of Vitamin E and colchicine has shown some promise in delaying progression of the condition.[17]

Some newer agents targeting the basic mechanisms of inflammation have been studied in larger clinical trials. These include potassium para-aminobenzoate (Potaba),[18] pentoxifylline (acting through TGFβ1 inhibition),[19] and Coenzyme Q10.[20]

The efficacy of Interferon-alpha-2b in the early stages of the disease has been reported in recent publications but it was found to be less effective in cases where calcification of the plaque had occurred in common with many treatments.[21][22][23]

Formulations of superoxide dismutase are also reported to be effective in Peyronie's disease.[24]

Injections to plaques (scar tissue formed by the inflammation) with Verapamil may be effective in some patients, but a recent placebo controlled trial failed to show a significant improvement. Use of iontophoresis with Verapamil and Dexamethasone, applied to the affected areas, has been studied.[25]

Surgery[edit]

Surgery, such as the "Nesbit operation", (which is named after Reed M. Nesbit (1898–1979), an American Urologist at University of Michigan)[26] is considered a last resort and should only be performed by highly skilled urological surgeons knowledgeable in specialized corrective surgical techniques. A penile prosthesis may be appropriate in advanced cases.[27] A European surgery called the Leriche technique, in which an 18 gauge needle is used to lacerate the plaque, has shown effectiveness at reducing curvature and returning sexual function.[28]

Physical therapy and devices[edit]

Self-administered manual stretching techniques, as well as a number of traction devices which exert gentle longitudinal forces on the plaque, are currently being studied in clinical trials. However, these penis extenders are controversial and most doctors recommend staying away from them due to their unknown and potentially harmful side effects.

Doctors are starting to look into less intrusive forms of therapy as an alternative to surgery because many patients were unhappy with the results of the intervention due mostly to the penile shortening that happens after the surgery.[29] Although there is no cure for Peyronie's Disease or fibrotic disorders that are localized in different areas of the body, several clinical studies such as the one mentioned above point to penis extenders as a possible treatment to correct curvature, or at the very least to impede the curvature from getting worse. According to Doctor Gontero, the leading researcher of the above mentioned study which was published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine in 2009, "Overall treatment results were subjectively scored as acceptable in spite of curvature improvements, which varied from 'no change' to 'mild improvement.'" The study concluded that penile extender devices provided only minimal improvements in penile curvature but patients were generally satisfied likely from increased penile length. Several other studies exist which exhibit minor to moderate improvements in curvature, length and thickness but no cases of complete reversal of the Peyronie's curvature.[30][31][32]

Counseling[edit]

Peyronie's Disease can be a physically and psychologically devastating disease. While most men will continue to be able to have sexual relations, they are likely to experience some degree of deformity and erectile dysfunction in the wake of the disease process. It is not uncommon for men afflicted with Peyronie's Disease to exhibit depression or withdrawal from their sexual partners.[33]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Freedberg, Irwin M.; Fitzpatrick, Thomas B. (2003). Fitzpatrick's dermatology in general medicine (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Medical Pub. Division. p. 990. ISBN 0-07-138076-0. 
  2. ^ Levine LA, Estrada CR, Storm DW, Matkov TG (2003). "Peyronie disease in younger men: characteristics and treatment results". Journal of Andrology 24 (1): 27–32. PMID 12514077. 
  3. ^ Pollack, Andrew (3 June 2012). "Treatment for Penis Curvature Sees Results". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  4. ^ Levine, Laurence A (2010). "Peyronie's disease and erectile dysfunction: Current understanding and future direction". Indian Journal of Urology 22 (3): 246–50. doi:10.4103/0970-1591.27633. 
  5. ^ Peyronie's disease at Who Named It?
  6. ^ "Peyronie's Disease". Retrieved 2007-12-03. 
  7. ^ "Peyronie's disease". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2007-12-03. 
  8. ^ Carrieri MP, Serraino D, Palmiotto F, Nucci G, Sasso F (June 1998). "A case-control study on risk factors for Peyronie's disease". Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 51 (6): 511–5. doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(98)00015-8. PMID 9636000. 
  9. ^ Amin Z, Patel U, Friedman EP, Vale JA, Kirby R, Lees WR (May 1993). "Colour Doppler and duplex ultrasound assessment of Peyronie's disease in impotent men". The British Journal of Radiology 66 (785): 398–402. doi:10.1259/0007-1285-66-785-398. PMID 8319059. 
  10. ^ a b "Peyronie's disease: Causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2010-03-18. 
  11. ^ Gelbard MK, Dorey F, James K (December 1990). "The natural history of Peyronie's disease". The Journal of Urology 144 (6): 1376–9. PMID 2231932. 
  12. ^ Levine LA (October 2003). "Review of current nonsurgical management of Peyronie's disease". International Journal of Impotence Research. 15 Suppl 5: S113–20. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3901084. PMID 14551587. 
  13. ^ Hauck EW, Diemer T, Schmelz HU, Weidner W (June 2006). "A critical analysis of nonsurgical treatment of Peyronie's disease". European Urology 49 (6): 987–97. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2006.02.059. PMID 16698449. 
  14. ^ "FDA approves first drug treatment for Peyronie’s disease". FDA NEWS RELEASE. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 6 December 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2013. 
  15. ^ Pollack, Andrew (December 6, 2013). "Injections to Treat an Embarrassing Ailment Win U.S. Approval". New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 2013. 
  16. ^ Mynderse LA, Monga M (October 2002). "Oral therapy for Peyronie's disease". International Journal of Impotence Research 14 (5): 340–4. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3900869. PMID 12454684. 
  17. ^ Prieto Castro RM, Leva Vallejo ME, Regueiro Lopez JC, Anglada Curado FJ, Alvarez Kindelan J, Requena Tapia MJ (April 2003). "Combined treatment with vitamin E and colchicine in the early stages of Peyronie's disease". BJU International 91 (6): 522–4. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2003.04134.x. PMID 12656907. 
  18. ^ Weidner W, Hauck EW, Schnitker J (April 2005). "Potassium paraaminobenzoate (POTABA) in the treatment of Peyronie's disease: a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized study". European Urology 47 (4): 530–5; discussion 535–6. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2004.12.022. PMID 15774254. 
  19. ^ Safarinejad MR, Asgari MA, Hosseini SY, Dadkhah F (July 2010). "A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of pentoxifylline in early chronic Peyronie's disease". BJU International 106 (2): 240–8. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2009.09041.x. PMID 19863517. 
  20. ^ Safarinejad MR (2010). "Safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 supplementation in early chronic Peyronie's disease: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study". International Journal of Impotence Research 22 (5): 298–309. doi:10.1038/ijir.2010.20. PMID 20720560. 
  21. ^ Trost LW, Gur S, Hellstrom WJ (2007). "Pharmacological Management of Peyronie's Disease". Drugs 67 (4): 527–45. doi:10.2165/00003495-200767040-00004. PMID 17352513. 
  22. ^ Dang G, Matern R, Bivalacqua TJ, Sikka S, Hellstrom WJ (January 2004). "Intralesional interferon-alpha-2B injections for the treatment of Peyronie's disease". Southern Medical Journal 97 (1): 42–6. doi:10.1097/01.SMJ.0000056658.60032.D3. PMID 14746421. 
  23. ^ Hellstrom WJ, Kendirci M, Matern R, et al. (July 2006). "Single-blind, multicenter, placebo controlled, parallel study to assess the safety and efficacy of intralesional interferon alpha-2B for minimally invasive treatment for Peyronie's disease". The Journal of Urology 176 (1): 394–8. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(06)00517-9. PMID 16753449. 
  24. ^ Riedl CR, Sternig P, Gallé G, et al. (October 2005). "Liposomal recombinant human superoxide dismutase for the treatment of Peyronie's disease: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind prospective clinical study". European Urology 48 (4): 656–61. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2005.04.011. PMID 15982798. 
  25. ^ Riedl CR, Plas E, Engelhardt P, Daha K, Pflüger H (January 2000). "Iontophoresis for treatment of Peyronie's disease". The Journal of Urology 163 (1): 95–9. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)67981-5. PMID 10604323. 
  26. ^ Ralph DJ, Minhas S (January 2004). "The management of Peyronie's disease". BJU International 93 (2): 208–15. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2004.04587.x. PMID 14690485. 
  27. ^ Hellstrom WJ, Usta MF (October 2003). "Surgical approaches for advanced Peyronie's disease patients". International Journal of Impotence Research 15 (Suppl 5): S121–4. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3901085. PMID 14551588. 
  28. ^ Khouaja K, Delmas V, Boccon-Gibod L (September 2004). "La technique de Leriche dans le traitement de la maladie de La Peyronie" [Leriche technique for the treatment of La Peyronie's disease]. Progrès En Urologie (in French) 14 (4): 586–9; discussion 588–9. PMID 15776920. INIST:16170028. 
  29. ^ Gontero P, Di Marco M, Giubilei G, et al. (February 2009). "Use of penile extender device in the treatment of penile curvature as a result of Peyronie's disease. Results of a phase II prospective study". The Journal of Sexual Medicine 6 (2): 558–66. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.01108.x. PMID 19138361. 
  30. ^ Can an External Penis Stretcher Reduce Peyronie's Penile Curvature? Oct. 2001 http://www.nature.com/ijir/journal/v13/n4s/pdf/3900746a.pdf
  31. ^ 5th Congress of the European Society for Sexual and Impotence Research (ESSIR). Hamburg, Germany. December 1–4, 2002. http://www.andromedical.com/pdf/en/study_penis_stretching_effective_for_peyronie_disease.pdf
  32. ^ Conservative treatment in a case of induratio penis plastica XXI National Congress of the SIA Regional Sections (Italian Andrology Society) Trieste, Italy, September 23–26, 2004.
  33. ^ Nelson CJ, Mulhall JP (March 2013). "Psychological impact of Peyronie's disease: a review". The Journal of Sexual Medicine 10 (3): 653–60. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2012.02999.x. PMID 23153101. 

External links[edit]