Peyton C. March
|Peyton Conway March|
December 27, 1864|
|Died||April 13, 1955
|Buried at||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1888–1921|
|Commands held||8th Field Artillery Regiment
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
World War I
Russian Civil War
|Awards||Distinguished Service Cross
Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Honor (France)
Peyton Conway March (born December 27, 1864 in Easton, Pennsylvania – April 13, 1955) was an American soldier and Army Chief of Staff. Indeed he is largely responsible for the designing the powerful role of the Chief of Staff in the 20th century.
March was the son of Francis Andrew March, considered the principal founder of modern comparative linguistics in Anglo-Saxon. Peyton March attended Lafayette College, where his father occupied the first chair of English language and comparative philology in the United States. In 1884, he was appointed to West Point and graduated in 1888. He was assigned to the 3rd Artillery.
He married Josephine Smith Cunningham (d. 1904) in 1891. They had a son, Peyton, Jr. (b. 1896), who was killed in a plane crash in Texas during World War I. March AFB in Riverside, California was named in young March's honor.
Early army career
In 1894, March was assigned to the 5th Artillery as a 1st lieutenant. He was sent to the Artillery School in 1896. He organized the Astor Battery (which was personally financed by John Jacob Astor IV) and commanded the battery when it was sent to the Philippines during the Spanish-American War. After the battery returned from the Philippines in 1899, March was assigned as the aide to Major General Arthur MacArthur, Jr. during the Philippine-American War. Later that year he was promoted to major. He continued to serve in the Philippines, and was a provincial governor and commissary of prisoners.
Historian Bruce Campbell Adamson has written about Henry Bidwell Ely (Adamson's great grandfather) who was placed in charge of The Astor Battery by John Jacob Astor IV, to give Peyton March whatever he needed. March credit's Ely as having "an open check book" to purchase uniforms, mules and the cannons.
In 1904–05, March was one of several American military attachés serving with the Imperial Japanese Army in the Russo-Japanese War. He would become one of eight observers who were later promoted to be generals in the U.S. Army.
In 1907, March commanded the 1st Battalion, 6th Field Artillery. March then served as adjutant of Fort Riley, Kansas and then served as adjutant at several other commands, including at the War Department.
In 1916, he was promoted to colonel and commanded the 8th Field Artillery Regiment on the Mexican border.
World War I and later
In June 1917, March was promoted to brigadier general and commanded the 1st Field Artillery Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, American Expeditionary Forces. Later that year, he was promoted to major general and commanded the artillery units of the U.S. First Army and all non-divisional artillery units.
In March 1918, he was recalled to Washington, took over as acting Army Chief of Staff on March 4 and was Army Chief of Staff on May 20, 1918. He was promoted to temporary general.
March was highly critical of President Wilson's decision to send an American Expedition to North Russia and Siberia in 1918 during the Russian Civil War (the so-called Siberian Intervention) ostensibly to prop-up the White movement war effort, secure the railroads, support the Czech Legion trapped there, and stop the Japanese from exploiting the chaos in order to colonize Siberia. March wrote after the pull-out of American forces in 1920:
|“||The sending of this expedition was the last occasion in which the president reversed the recommendation of the War Department during my service as Chief of Staff of the Army... almost immediately after the Siberian and North Russian forces had reached their theaters of operations, events moved rapidly and uniformly in the direction of complete failure of these expeditions to accomplish anything that their sponsors had claimed for them.||”|
In 1919 March was admitted as an honorary member of the Virginia Society of the Cincinnati.
He served as Chief of Staff until June 30, 1921. As Chief of Staff he reorganized the Army structure, and abolished the distinctions between the Regular Army, the Army Reserves, and the Army National Guard during war time. He created new technical branches in the service including the United States Army Air Corps, Chemical Warfare Corps, Transportation Corps, and Tank Corps. He also centralized control over supply. After the war ended, he supervised the demobilization of the Army. As Chief of Staff he often came into disagreement with General John J. Pershing, who wanted to conduct the AEF as an independent command.
March retired as a major general in 1921. In June 1930, March was advanced to general on the retired list.
March died on April 13, 1955 and is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
March was a highly efficient and capable administrator who did much to modernize the American Army and prepare it for combat in the First World War.
In 1923, he married Cora V. McEntee.
Dates of rank
- Cadet, United States Military Academy – 15 June 1884
- Second Lieutenant, USA – 11 June 1888
- First Lieutenant, USA – 25 October 1894
- Major of Volunteers – 5 July 1899
- Lieutenant Colonel of Volunteers – 9 June 1900
- Captain, USA – 2 February 1901
- Discharged from Volunteers - 30 June 1901
- Major, USA – 25 January 1907
- Lieutenant Colonel, USA - 8 February 1912
- Colonel, USA – 1 July 1916
- Brigadier General, USA – 17 June 1917
- Major General, National Army – 5 August 1917
- Major General, USA – 23 September 1917 (accepted 12 February 1918)
- General, National Army – 20 May 1918
- Discharge as General, National Army - 30 June 1920
- Retired - 1 November 1921
Source - Army Register, 1922. pg. 1192.
Awards and decorations
- Distinguished Service Cross
- Army Distinguished Service Medal
- Silver Star with four Oak Leaf Clusters
- Spanish Campaign Medal
- Philippine Campaign Medal
- Mexican Border Service Medal
- World War I Victory Medal
- Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (UK)
- Grand Officier Légion d'honneur (France)
- Grand Cross Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Italy)
- Grand Cordon Order of the Rising Sun (Japan)
- Grand Cross Order of George I (Greece)
- Grand Cross Order of the Crown (Belgium)
- Grand Cross Polonia Restituta (Poland)
- War Cross (Czechoslovakia)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Peyton C. March.|
- Armed Services Press, Welcome to March Air Force Base – 1971 Unofficial Guide and Directory, Riverside, California, 1971, page 3.
- 'The Life and Times of Captain George W. Ely,'1840-1922
- Sisemore, James D. (2003) "The Russo-Japanese War, Lessons Not Learned," p. 109. U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.
- Robert L. Willett,Russian Sideshow: America's Undeclared War, 1918–1920 p.264
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1922). "March, Francis Andrew". Encyclopædia Britannica (12th ed.). London & New York.
- Coffman, Edward M. The Hilt of the Sword: The Career of Peyton C. March (1966)
- Neumann, Brian. "A Question of Authority: Reassessing the March-Pershing" Feud" in the First World War." Journal of Military History (2009) 73#4 pp: 1117-1142. online
- Fisher, Ann. "Toward a Post World War I Military Policy: Peyton C. March vs. John McAuley Palmer." (Army War College thesis) 1973) online
- The Last Salute: Civil and Military Funeral, 1921–1969, CHAPTER XI, Former Army Chief of Staff General Peyton C. March, Special Military Funeral, 13–18 April 1955 by B. C. Mossman and M. W. Stark
- Peyton C. March at Find a Grave
Tasker H. Bliss
|Chief of Staff of the United States Army
John J. Pershing