Pha̍k-oa-chhi romanization

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Pha̍k-oa-chhi (白話字) is a Latin alphabet based orthography for the Nanchang dialect of the Gan language. Pha̍k-oa-chhi is based on Pe̍h-ōe-jī for Min Nan, and it is also related to the orthographies of Pha̍k-fa-sṳ for Hakka and Bàng-uâ-cê for Min Dong. The counterpart for Teochew is Pêh-uē-jī.

Alphabet[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Pha̍k-oa-chhi Examples IPA
p 不丙八 [p]
ph 便坡平 [pʰ]
m 名卯免 [m]
f 夫火話 [ɸ]~[f]
t 丁典丹 [t]
th 天土大 [tʰ]
l 乃六男 [l]
ch 中主九 [ts]~[tɕ]
chh 七丈出 [tsʰ]~[tɕʰ]
s 細司西 [s]~[ɕ]
gn 年元女 [ɲ]~[nʲ]
k 各光交 [k]
kh 可口共 [kʰ]
ng 哀安恩 [ŋ]
h 下何合 [h]
∅ (null) 一也雲

Vowels[edit]

Monophthongs[edit]

Pha̍k-oa-chhi Example IPA
a 下三人 [a]~[ɑ]
i 一丁世 [i]~[ɨ]
u 中公共 [u]
主雲於 [y]
e 冊則然 [ɛ]
不政珍 [ə]
o 上何作 [ɔ]

Diphthongs[edit]

Pha̍k-oa-chhi Example IPA
ai 介代 [ai]
au 交保 [au]
ia 也且 [ia]
iu 久九 [iu]
ie 幹便 [iɛ]
ie 葉折 [iə]
io 享亮 [iɔ]
oa 凡刮 [ua]
oi 久九 [ui]
oe 國或 [uɛ]
oe - [uə]
uo 亡光 [uɔ]
ṳo 全元 [yɔ]

Tone[edit]

Tone Example Pha̍k-oa-chhi
陰平 Yin Ping 妻欺溪 chhi
陽平 Yang Ping 其器奇旗 chhí
上聲 Shang Sheng 啟氣豈起 chhî
陰去 Yin Qu chhī
陽去 Yang Qu chhì
入聲 Ru Sheng 七極疾 chhi̍+p, t, k

External links[edit]