Phalangodidae

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Phalangodidae
Bishopella laciniosa.jpg
Bishopella laciniosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Arachnida
Order: Opiliones
Suborder: Laniatores
Infraorder: Grassatores
Superfamily: Phalangodoidea
Family: Phalangodidae
Simon, 1879
Synonyms
  • Paralolidae Kratochvíl, 1958
  • Lolinae Kratochvíl, 1958

The Phalangodidae are a family of harvestmen with about 20 genera and more than 100 described species, distributed in the Holarctic Region.

It is not to be confused with the harvestman family Phalangiidae, which is in the suborder Eupnoi.

Name[edit]

The name of the type genus Phalangodes is derived from Ancient Greek φάλαγξ (phalanx), a line of soldiers in formation. This probably refers to the rows of pedipalpal spines.[1]

Description[edit]

Body length ranges from less than 1 mm to about 3 mm (0.12 in). The pedipalps are armed with large spines. While some species have legs eight times the body length, others have shorter legs of about twice the body length. Most species are yellowish to orange brown. Troglobitic (cave-dwelling) species are depigmented.[1]

Distribution[edit]

More than two thirds of the species occur in the western Nearctic, especially in California with about 50 species in four endemic genera. About ten species are known from the eastern Nearctic. Few occur in the Palearctic, with one species each in the Canary Islands and Japan, and about 20 species in the Mediterranean region.[1]

Relationships[edit]

The family seems to be largely monophyletic, with the exceptions of a few genera like Guerrobunus and Glennhuntia. Although the relationship of Phalangodidae to other Grassatores is currently unresolved, at seems that the family is relatively basal inside the Grassatores.[1]

Genera[edit]

The family Phalangodidae contains the following genera:[2]

  • Ausobskya Martens, 1972Greece (4 species)
  • Banksula Roewer, 1949California (10 species)
  • Bishopella Roewer, 1927 — southeastern US (2 species)
  • Calicina Ubick & Briggs, 1989 — California (25 species)
  • Crosbyella Roewer, 1927 — southeastern US (5 species)
  • Glennhuntia Shear, 2001 — western Australia (1 species; probably misplaced)
  • Guerrobunus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1945Mexico (3 species; probably misplaced)
  • Haasus Roewer, 1949
  • Lola Kratochvíl, 1937 — Israel (1 species)
  • Maiorerus Rambla, 1993Canary Islands (1 species)
  • Microcina Briggs & Ubick, 1989 — California (6 species)
  • Paralola Kratochvíl, Balat & Pelikan, 1958 — Bulgaria (1 species)
  • Phalangodes Tellkampf, 1844 — Kentucky, Cuba? (2 species; 1 species possibly misplaced)
  • Phalangomma Roewer, 1949 — Virginia (1 species; probably misplaced)
  • Proscotolemon Roewer, 1916Japan (1 species)
  • Ptychosoma Sørensen, 1873 — Spain, Italy, North Africa (2 species)
  • Scotolemon Lucas, 1860 — Mediterranean (13 species)
  • Sitalcina Banks, 1911 — California (9 species)
  • Texella Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942 — Texas, California, Oregon, New Mexico (28 species)
  • Tolus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942Tennessee (1 species)
  • Undulus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942Alabama (1 species)
  • Wespus Goodnight & Goodnight, 1942Arkansas (1 species)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Darrell Ubick (2007). "Phalangodidae Simon, 1879". In R. Pinto-da-Rocha, G. Machado & G. Giribet. Harvestmen - The Biology of Opiliones. Harvard University Press. pp. 217–221. ISBN 0-674-02343-9. 
  2. ^ Joel Hallan's Biology Catalog: Phalangodidae