Pharasmanes I of Iberia
Pharasmanes I or P’arsman (died 58) was a king of Caucasian Iberia (Kartli, modern eastern Georgia). He plays a prominent role in the historian Tacitus’ account of policy and campaigns in the eastern Roman Empire under Tiberius, Claudius and Nero. According to Cyril Toumanoff, Pharasmanes was a member of the third Pharnabazid Dynasty and reigned from 1 to 58.
As an ally of Rome, Pharasmanes invaded Armenia and captured the capital city of Artaxata in 35. Pharasmanes left his brother Mithridates on the Armenian throne, and when the Parthian prince Orodes attempted to dispossess him of his newly acquired kingdom, Pharasmanes assembled a large army, with which he totally defeated the Parthians in a pitched battle.
At an unknown date, Pharasmanes married an unnamed Armenian princess of the Artaxiad Dynasty. She was the daughter of the Artaxiad Armenian monarchs Tigranes IV and his sister-wife Erato. His Armenian wife bore him three sons: Mithridates I (Mihrdat), Rhadamistus, and Amazaspus (Amazasp), who is known from a Greek inscription found in Rome.
Around 52, Pharasmanes instigated Rhadamistus, whose ambitious and aspiring character began to give him umbrage, to make war upon his uncle Mithridates, and supported him in his enterprise. After a short reign, Rhadamistus was in turn expelled by the Parthians in 55, and took refuge again in his father's dominions. The Romans had expressed their displeasure at the proceedings of Rhadamistus, and in order to curry their favor, Pharasmanes put his son to death. Pharasmanes was apparently succeeded by Mithridates (Mihrdat) I.
Toumanoff has tentatively suggested the identification of Pharasmanes with the Aderki (or Rok) of the medieval Georgian chronicles whose reign is said to have coincided with the appearance of the first Christian communities in Georgia, and the travel of the Jews from Mtskheta to Jerusalem whence they witnessed the crucifixion of Jesus and brought the Holy Tunic to Iberia. According to the Georgian chronicles, Aderki’s division of his kingdom between his two sons, Kartam (Kardzam) and Bartom (Bratman), inaugurated the start of dyarchy in Iberia which would last for five generations. Many modern scholars, however, doubt the existence of the diarchy, for the contemporary foreign source make references only to sole monarch.
- Tacitus, Annals. vi. 32-35.
- Tacitus, Annales xii. 42-48, xiii. 6, 37.
- Toumanoff, Cyril (1967). Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p. 101. Georgetown University Press.
- Rapp, Stephen H. (2003), Studies In Medieval Georgian Historiography: Early Texts And Eurasian Contexts, pp. 285-287. Peeters Publishers, ISBN 90-429-1318-5.
|King of Iberia
c. 1 – 58