Pharmacist

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For the precursor profession, see Apothecary.
Pharmacist
Occupation
Names Pharmacist, Chemist, Druggist, Doctor of Pharmacy, Apothecary or simply Doctor
Occupation type
Professional
Activity sectors
health care, health sciences, chemical sciences
Description
Competencies The ethics, art and science of medicine, analytical skills, critical thinking
Education required
Doctor of Pharmacy, Master of Pharmacy
Related jobs
Doctor, pharmacy technician, toxicologist, chemist, pharmacy assistant other medical specialists

Pharmacists, also known as chemists (Commonwealth English) or druggists (both North American and Commonwealth English), are healthcare professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use. A pharmacist is a member of the health care team directly involved in patient care.[1][2] Pharmacists undergo university-level education to understand biochemical mechanisms of action of drugs, drug uses, and therapeutic roles, side effects, potential drug interactions, and monitoring parameters. This is mated to anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. Pharmacists interpret and communicate this specialized knowledge to patients, physicians, and other health care providers.

Among other licensing requirements, different countries require pharmacists to hold either a Bachelor of Pharmacy or Doctor of Pharmacy degree.

The most common pharmacist positions are that of a community pharmacist (also referred to as a retail pharmacist, first-line pharmacist or dispensing chemist), or a hospital pharmacist, where they instruct and counsel on the proper use and adverse effects of medically prescribed drugs and medicines.[3][4][5] In most countries, the profession is subject to professional regulation. Depending on the legal scope of practice, pharmacists may contribute to prescribing (also referred to as "pharmacist prescriber") and administering certain medications (e.g., immunizations) in some jurisdictions. Pharmacists may also practice in a variety of other settings, including industry, wholesaling, research, academia, military, and government.

Nature of the work[edit]

See also: Pharmacy

Historically, the fundamental role of pharmacists as a healthcare practitioner was to check and distribute drugs to doctors for medication that had been prescribed to patients. In more modern times, pharmacists advise patients and health care providers on the selection, dosages, interactions, and side effects of medications, and act as a learned intermediary between a prescriber and a patient. Pharmacists monitor the health and progress of patients to ensure the safe and effective use of medication. Pharmacists may practice compounding; however, many medicines are now produced by pharmaceutical companies in a standard dosage and drug delivery form. In some jurisdictions, pharmacists have prescriptive authority to either independently prescribe under their own authority or in collaboration with a primary care physician through an agreed upon protocol.[6]

Increased numbers of drug therapies, ageing but more knowledgeable and demanding populations, and deficiencies in other areas of the health care system seem to be driving increased demand for the clinical counselling skills of the pharmacist.[1] One of the most important roles that pharmacists are currently taking on is one of pharmaceutical care.[7] Pharmaceutical care involves taking direct responsibility for patients and their disease states, medications, and management of each to improve outcomes. Pharmaceutical care has many benefits that may include but are not limited to: decreased medication errors; increased patient compliance in medication regimen; better chronic disease state management, including hypertension and other cardiovascular disease risk factors;[8] strong pharmacist–patient relationship; and decreased long-term costs of medical care.

Pharmacists are often the first point-of-contact for patients with health inquiries. Thus pharmacists have a significant role in assessing medication management in patients, and in referring patients to physicians. These roles may include, but are not limited to:

  • clinical medication management, including reviewing and monitoring of medication regimens
  • assessment of patients with undiagnosed or diagnosed conditions, and ascertaining clinical medication management needs
  • specialized monitoring of disease states, such as dosing drugs in renal and hepatic failure
  • compounding medicines
  • providing pharmaceutical information
  • providing patients with health monitoring and advice, including advice and treatment of common ailments and disease states
  • supervising pharmacy technicians and other staff
  • oversight of dispensing medicines on prescription
  • provision of non-prescription or over-the-counter drugs
  • education and counseling for patients and other health care providers on optimal use of medicines (e.g., proper use, avoidance of overmedication)
  • referrals to other health professionals if necessary
  • pharmacokinetic evaluation
  • promoting public health by administering immunizations

Education and credentialing[edit]

The role of pharmacy education, pharmacist licensing, and continuing education vary from country to country and between regions/localities within countries. In most countries, pharmacists must obtain a university degree at a pharmacy school or related institution, and/or satisfy other national/local credentialing requirements. In many contexts, students must first complete pre-professional (undergraduate) coursework, followed by about four years of professional academic studies to obtain a degree in pharmacy (such as Doctorate of Pharmacy). Pharmacists are educated in pharmacology, pharmacognosy, chemistry, organic chemistry, biochemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, microbiology, pharmacy practice (including drug interactions, medicine monitoring, medication management), pharmaceutics, pharmacy law, physiology, anatomy, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug delivery, pharmaceutical care, nephrology, hepatology, and compounding of medications. Additional curriculum may cover diagnosis with emphasis on laboratory tests, disease state management, therapeutics and prescribing (selecting the most appropriate medication for a given patient).

On graduation, pharmacists are licensed, either nationally or regionally, to dispense medication of various types in the areas they have trained for. Some may undergo further specialized training, such as in cardiology or oncology.

Practice specialization[edit]

Specialties include:

Training and practice by country[edit]

Australia[edit]

The Australian Pharmacy Council is the independent accreditation agency for Australian pharmacists.[9] It conducts examinations on behalf of the Pharmacy Board of Australia towards eligibility for registration. The Australian College of Pharmacy provides continuing education programs for pharmacists.

Wages for pharmacists in Australia appear to have stagnated.[citation needed] The award wages for a pharmacist is $812 a week.[10] Pharmacist graduates are the lowest paid university graduates most years. Most pharmacists do earn above the award wage; the average male pharmacist earns $65,000, a female pharmacist averages $56,500.[citation needed] Over recent years, wages have stagnated, and even gone backwards. There are more graduates expected in the next few years making it even harder to get a job. Job security and increase in wages with regards to CPI could be unlikely.[citation needed] This is due to the large numbers of pharmacy graduates in recent years, and government desire to lower PBS costs. Contract and casual work is becoming more common. A contract pharmacist is self-employed and often called a locum; these pharmacists may be hired for one shift or for a longer period of time. There are accounts of underemployment and unemployment emerging recently.[citation needed]

Canada[edit]

The Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) is the national professional organization for pharmacists in Canada.[5] Specific requirements for practice vary across provinces, but generally include a Bachelor's of Science in Pharmacy from a recognized university, successful completion of a national board examination through the Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada, and practical experience through an apprenticeship/internship program.

The vast majority (80%) of Canada's licensed pharmacists work in community pharmacies, another 15 percent in hospital or institutional pharmacies, and the remainder work in situations that may not legally require licensed pharmacists such as associations, pharmaceutical companies, and consulting firms.[1] The wages for pharmacists, at about CAD $95,000, have been said to be slightly better than Australia but not as good as in the USA.[citation needed] This likely depends on what parts of Canada and or the USA are compared. Wages being significantly higher in Canada than the prospect for most developing countries, recruitment of pharmacists from South Africa and other countries with acute health workforce shortages to work in private franchise chains is subject to controversy.[11]

British Columbia

A Pharmacist must be registered with the College of Pharmacists of British Columbia to practice in this province. A Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences is the minimum requirement to practice as a pharmacist in BC. The University of British Columbia is the only institution in the province that trains pharmacists.

BC Professional association/college

Germany[edit]

In Germany, the education and training is divided into three sections, each ending with a state examination:

  • University: Basic studies (at least four semesters)
  • University: Main studies (at least four semesters)
  • Community Pharmacy / Hospital Pharmacy / Industry: Practical training (12 months; 6 months in a Community Pharmacy).

After the third state examination a person must become licensed as an RPh ("registered pharmacist") for a licence to practice pharmacy. Today, many pharmacists work as employees in public pharmacies. They will be paid according to the labour agreement of Adexa and employer associations.

Japan[edit]

History[edit]

In ancient Japan, the men who fulfilled roles similar to pharmacists were respected. The place of pharmacists in society was settled in the Taihō Code (701) and re-stated in the Yōrō Code (718). Ranked positions in the pre-Heian Imperial court were established; and this organizational structure remained largely intact until the Meiji Restoration (1868). In this highly stable hierarchy, the pharmacists — and even pharmacist assistants — were assigned status superior to all others in health-related fields such as physicians and acupuncturists. In the Imperial household, the pharmacist was even ranked above the two personal physicians of the Emperor.[12]

Contemporary[edit]

As of 1997, 46 universities of pharmacy in Japan graduated about 8000 students annually.[13] Contemporary practice of clinical pharmacists in Japan (as evaluated in September 2000) focuses on dispensing of drugs, consultation with patients, supplying drug information, advising on prescription changes and amending prescriptions. These practices have been linked to decreases in the average number of drugs in prescriptions, drug costs and incidence of adverse drug events.[14]

Nigeria[edit]

Training to become a registered Pharmacist in Nigeria involves a five-year course after six years of secondary/high school or four years after eight years of secondary/high school (i.e. after 2 years of Advanced-level studies in accredited Universities). The Degree awarded by most Pharmacy Schools presently is a Bachelor of Pharmacy Degree (B.Pharm.) However in the near future,[when?] all schools will offer a 6-year first Degree course leading to the award of a Pharm.D (Doctor of Pharmacy Degree). The University of Benin has started the Pharm.D programme with other pharmacy schools planning to start soon. The Pharmacy Degree in Nigeria is unclassified i.e. awarded without first class, second class upper, etc., however graduates could be awarded Pass with Distinctions in specific fields such as Pharmaceutics, Pharmacology, medicinal chemistry etc. Pharmacy Graduates are required to undergo 1 year of Tutelage under the supervision of an already Registered Pharmacist(a preceptor) in a recognized and designated Institution before they can become Registered Pharmacists. The Profession is Regulated by a Government Statutory body called the Pharmacists Council of Nigeria. The West African Post Graduate College of Pharmacy runs post-registration courses on advanced-level practice in various fields of pharmacy. It is a college jointly funded by a number of Countries in the West Africa sub-region. There are thousands of Nigerian-trained Pharmacists registered and Practicing in countries such as the US, the UK, Canada etc., due to the relatively poor public sector salaries in Nigeria.

Pakistan[edit]

In Pakistan, the Pharm.D. (Doctor of Pharmacy) degree is a graduate-level professional doctorate degree. Twenty-one universities are registered with the Pharmacy Council of Pakistan for imparting Pharmacy courses. In 2004 the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan and the Pharmacy Council of Pakistan revised the syllabus and changed the 4-year B.Pharmacy (Bachelor of Pharmacy) Program to a 5-year Pharm.D. (Doctor of Pharmacy) program. All 21 universities have started the 5-year Pharm.D Program. In 2011 the Pharmacy Council of Pakistan approved the awarding of a Doctor of Pharmacy degree, a five-year programme at the Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar. A Pharmacist holding a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D) qualification can use the prefix Dr. before their name.

Sweden[edit]

In Sweden, the national board of health and welfare regulates the practice of all legislated health care professionals, and also is responsible for registration of pharmacists in the country. The education to become a licensed pharmacist is regulated by the European Union, and states that minimum educational requirements are five years of university studies in a pharmacy program, of which six months must be a pharmacy internship. To be admitted to pharmacy studies, students must complete a gymnasium (school for 15–18-year-olds) program in natural sciences after elementary school (6–15-year-olds). In Sweden, pharmacists are called Apotekare. At pharmacies pharmacists work together with another class of legislated health care professionals called receptarier, who have completed studies equal to a bachelor of science in pharmacy, i.e., three years of university. These latter also have dispensing rights >

Tanzania[edit]

In Tanzania, pharmacy practice is regulated by the national Pharmacy Board, which is also responsible for registration of pharmacists in the country. By international standards, the density of pharmacists is very low, with a mean of 0.18 per 10,000 population. The majority of pharmacists are found in urban areas, with some underserved regions having only 2 pharmacists per region. According to 2007–2009 data, the largest group of pharmacists was employed in the public sector (44%). Those working in private retail pharmacies were 23%, and the rest were mostly working for private wholesalers, pharmaceutical manufacturers, in academia/teaching, or with faith-based or non-governmental facilities. The salaries of pharmacists varied significantly depending on the place of work. Those who worked in the academia were the highest paid followed by those who worked in the multilateral non-governmental organizations. The public sector including public retail pharmacies and faith based organizations paid much less. The Ministry of Health salary scale for medical doctors was considerably higher than that of pharmacists despite having a difference of only one year of training.[15]

United Kingdom[edit]

In the United Kingdom, most pharmacists working in the National Health Service practice in hospital pharmacy or community pharmacy. Pharmacists can undertake additional training to allow them to prescribe medicines for specific conditions.[16]

In British English (and to some extent Australian English), the professional title known as "pharmacist" is also known as "dispensing chemist". A dispensing chemist usually operates from a pharmacy or chemist's shop (also called a "drug store" elsewhere), and is allowed to fulfil medical prescriptions and sell over-the-counter drugs and other health-related goods.

The new professional role for pharmacist as prescriber has been recognized in the UK since May 2006, called the "Pharmacist Independent Prescriber". Once qualified, a pharmacist independent prescriber can prescribe any licensed medicine for any medical condition within their competence. This includes controlled drugs except schedule 1 and prescribing for the treatment of addiction.[17]

Education and registration[edit]

Pharmacists, pharmacy technicians and pharmacy premises in Great Britain are regulated by the General Pharmaceutical Council (GPhC). The role of regulatory and professional body was previously carried out by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, which remained as a professional body after handing over the regulatory role to the GPhC in 2010.[18]

The following criteria must be met for qualification as a pharmacist in Great Britain:

  • Successful completion of a 4-year Master of Pharmacy degree at a GPhC accredited university. Pharmacists holding degrees in Pharmacy from overseas institutions are able to fulfill this stage by undertaking the Overseas Pharmacist Assessment Programme (OSPAP), which is a one-year postgraduate diploma. On completion of the OSPAP, the candidate would proceed with the other stages of the registration process in the same manner as a UK student.
  • Completion of a 52-week preregistration training period. This is a period of paid employment in an approved hospital or community pharmacy under the supervision of a pharmacist tutor. During this time the student must collect evidence of having met certain competency standards set by the GPhC.
  • A pass mark in the GPhC registration exam. This includes a closed-book paper and an open book/mental calculations paper (using the British National Formulary and the GPhC's "Standards of Conduct, Ethics and Performance" document as reference sources). The student must achieve an overall mark of 70%, which must include at least 70% in the calculations section of the open book paper.
  • Satisfactorily meeting the GPhC's Fitness to Practice Standards.[19]

Pharmacists in Northern Ireland are regulated by the Pharmaceutical Society of Northern Ireland. They operate separate but broadly similar registration requirements to the GPhC.[20]

United States[edit]

In the United States, the majority (65%) of pharmacists work in retail settings, mostly as salaried employees but some as self-employed owners. About 22% work in hospitals, and the rest mainly in mail-order or Internet pharmacies, pharmaceutical wholesalers, practises of physicians, and the Federal Government.[4]

All graduating pharmacists must now obtain the Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree before they are eligible to sit for the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) to enter into pharmacy practice.[21]

Pharmacy School Accreditation[edit]

The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) was founded in 1932 as the accrediting body for schools of pharmacy in the United States.[22] The mission of ACPE is “To assure and advance excellence in education for the profession of pharmacy.”[23] ACPE is recognized for the accreditation of professional degree programs by the United States Department of Education (USDE) and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA).[24] Since 1975, ACPE has also been the accrediting body for continuing pharmacy education. The ACPE board of directors are appointed by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP), the American Pharmacists Association (APhA), the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) (three appointments each), and the American Council on Education (one appointment). To obtain licensure in the United States, applicants for the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) must graduate from an ACPE accredited school of pharmacy. ACPE publishes standards that schools of pharmacy must comply with to gain accreditation.[25] There are currently 30 standards organized within six major categories of 1) mission, planning, and evaluation, 2) organization and administration, 3) curriculum, 4) students, 5) faculty and staff, 6) facilities and resources. A Pharmacy school pursuing accreditation must first apply and be granted Pre-candidate status.[26] These schools have met all the requirements for accreditation, but have not yet enrolled any students. This status indicates that the school of pharmacy has developed its program in accordance with the ACPE standards and guidelines. Once a school has enrolled students, but has not yet had a graduating class, they may be granted Candidate status. The expectations of a Candidate program are that they continue to mature in accordance with stated plans. The graduates of a Candidate program are the same as those of fully accredited programs. Full accreditation is granted to a program once they have demonstrated they comply with the standards set forth by ACPE. The customary review cycle for established accredited programs is six years, whereas for programs achieving their initial accreditation this cycle is two years. These are comprehensive on-site evaluations of the programs. Additional evaluations may be conducted at the discretion of ACPE in the interim between comprehensive evaluations.

Education[edit]

Acceptance into a doctorate of pharmacy program depends upon completing specific prerequisites or obtaining a transferrable bachelor's degree. Pharmacy school is four years of graduate school (accelerated Pharmacy Schools go January to January and are only 3 years), which include at least one year of practical experience. Graduates receive a Doctorate of Pharmacy (PharmD) upon graduation. Most schools require students to take a Pharmacy College Admissions Test PCAT and complete 90 credit hours of university coursework in the sciences, mathematics, composition, and humanities before entry into the PharmD program. Due to the large admittance requirements and highly competitive nature of the field, many pharmacy students complete a bachelor's degree before entry to pharmacy school.

Possible prerequisites:

Besides taking classes, additional requirements before graduating may include a certain number of hours for community service, e.g., working in hospitals, clinics, and retail.

Estimated timeline: 4 years undergraduate + 4 years doctorate + 1–2 years residency + 1–3 years fellowship = 8–13 years

A doctorate of pharmacy (except non-traditional, i.e. transferring a license from another country) is the only degree accepted by the National Associate of Boards of Pharmacy NABP to be eligible to "sit" for the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX). Previously the United States had a 5 year bachelor's degree in pharmacy. For BS Pharmacy graduates currently licensed in US, there are 10 Universities offering non-traditional doctorate degree programs via part-time, weekend or on-line programs. These are programs fully accredited by Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) but only available to current BS Pharmacy graduates with a license to practice pharmacy. Some institutions still offer 6 year accelerated PharmD programs (similar to 6 year MD programs), though in both cases the issuance of a doctoral degree in less than 8 years is controversial.

The current Pharm.D. degree curriculum is considerably different from that of the prior BS in pharmacy. It now includes extensive didactic clinical preparation, a full year of hands-on practice experience in a wider array of healthcare settings, and a greater emphasis on clinical pharmacy practice pertaining to pharmacotherapy optimization. Legal requirements in the US to becoming a pharmacist include: graduating from an accredited PharmD program, conducting a specified number of internship hours under a licensed pharmacist (i.e. 1800 hours in some states), passing the NAPLEX, and passing a Multi-state Pharmacy Jurisprudence Exam MPJE. Arkansas, California, and Virginia have their own exams instead of the MPJE and pharmacists must pass the Arkansas Jurisprudence Exam, California Jurisprudence Exam, and Virginia Law Exam, respectively.[27]

Residency is an option for post-graduates that is typically 1–2 years in length. A residency gives licensed pharmacists decades of clinical experience in an extremely condensed timeframe of only a few short years. In order for new graduates to remain competitive, employers generally favor residency trained applicants for clinical positions. The profession is moving toward resident-trained pharmacists who wish to provide direct patient care clinical services. In 1990, the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) required the new professional degree. Graduates from a PharmD program may also elect to do a fellowship that is geared toward research. Fellowships can varying in length but last 1–3 years depending on the program and usually require 1 year of residency at minimum.

Specialization and credentialing[edit]

American pharmacists can become certified in recognized specialty practice areas by passing an examination administered by one of several credentialing boards.

Earnings and wages[edit]

According to the 2010 "Pharmacy Compensation Survey":[30]

  • Directors of Pharmacy $125,200
  • Retail Staff Pharmacists $113,600
  • Hospital Staff Pharmacists $111,700
  • Mail Order Staff Pharmacists $109,300
  • Clinical Pharmacists $113,400

According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics – Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010–11 Edition:[4]

  • Median annual wages of wage and salary pharmacists in May 2008 were $106,410. The middle 50 percent earned between $92,670 and $121,310 a year. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $77,390, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $131,440 a year.

Vietnam[edit]

School students must take a national exam to enter a university of pharmacy or the pharmacy department of a university of medicine and pharmacy. About 5–7% of students can pass the exam. There are 3 aspects to the exam. These are on math, chemistry, and physics. After being trained in the university students receive a 5 – year bachelor's degree in pharmacy. Or they are university pharmacists (university pharmacist to discriminate between college pharmacist or vocational pharmacist in some countries of the world these pharmacist are call pharmacist assistants). An alternative method of obtaining a Bachelor's degree is as follows. School pupils study in a college of pharmacy or a vocational school of pharmacy. After attending the school or college they go to work. And with two years of practice they could take an exam to enter university of pharmacy or the pharmacy department of a university of medicine and pharmacy. This exam is easier than the national one. Passing the exam they continue studying to gain 3 – year bachelor's degrees or 4 – year bachelor's degrees. This degree is considered equivalent to a 5 – year bachelor's degree.

Noted people who were pharmacists[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c A Situational Analysis of Human Resource Issues in the Pharmacy Profession in Canada. Human Resources Development Canada, 2001. Accessed 15 July 2011.
  2. ^ MedScape News, Preceptors' Perspectives on Benefits of Precepting Student Pharmacists, accessed 15 July 2011.
  3. ^ World Health Organization. Classifying health workers. Geneva, 2010.
  4. ^ a b c US Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010–11 Edition"Pharmacists". Accessed 14 July 2011.
  5. ^ a b Canadian Pharmacists Association What do Pharmacists do? Accessed 14 July 2011.
  6. ^ Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Pharmacist prescribing.
  7. ^ Cipolle RJ, Strand LM, Morley PC. Pharmaceutical care practice. 2nd ed. Toronto: McGraw-Hill; 2004.
  8. ^ Santschi, V; Chiolero, A; Burnand, B; Colosimo, AL; Paradis, G (Sep 12, 2011). "Impact of pharmacist care in the management of cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.". Archives of internal medicine 171 (16): 1441–53. PMID 21911628. 
  9. ^ Australian Pharmacy Council. Accessed 14 July 2011.
  10. ^ http://beta.guild.org.au/uploadedfiles/wa_branch/services_to_members/pharmacists%20wage%20rates%2021.07.05.pdf Pharmacist Wage Rates
  11. ^ Attaran A, Walker RB. "Shoppers Drug Mart or Poachers Drug Mart?" CMAJ 2008; 178(3) doi:10.1503/cmaj.071733
  12. ^ Titsingh, Isaac. (1834) Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 434.
  13. ^ Kawahara A. The Role of the Pharmacist in the Health-Care System – Preparing the Future Pharmacist: Curricular Development. Report of a Third WHO Consultative Group on the Role of the Pharmacist, Vancouver, Canada, 27–29 August 1997. Accessed 18 July 2011.
  14. ^ Yuki I et al. Role of the Clinical Pharmacist in Pharmaceutical Care. Japanese Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences (2005) 31(2): 113–120.
  15. ^ Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. Assessment of the Pharmaceutical Human Resources in Tanzania and Strategic Framework, Dar es Salaam, 2010.
  16. ^ National Health Service. NHS Careers in Detail: Pharmacist. Accessed 14 July 2011.
  17. ^ Department of Health. Pharmacist independent prescribing FAQ. Accessed 14 July 2011.
  18. ^ Royal Pharmaceutical Society History of the Society Accessed 18 January 2012
  19. ^ General Pharmaceutical Council Registering as a Pharmacist. Accessed 18 January 2012.
  20. ^ Pharmaceutical Society of Northern Ireland Process of Registration Accessed 18 January 2012
  21. ^ Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. Accreditation Standards and Guidelines for the Professional Program in Pharmacy Leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy Degree. Available at: http://www.acpe-accredit.org/pdf/S2007Guidelines2.0_ChangesIdentifiedInRed.pdf. Accessed on February 15, 2011.
  22. ^ 'ACPE. Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. 2012. Available at: https://www.acpe-accredit.org/about/default.asp'
  23. ^ 'Mission. Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. 2012. Available at: https://www.acpe-accredit.org/about/mission.asp'
  24. ^ 'Policies and Procedures for ACPE Accreditation of Professional Degree Programs. Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. 2012. Available at: https://www.acpe-accredit.org/pdf/CS_PoliciesandProcedures2011.pdf
  25. ^ Accreditation standards and guidelines for the Professional Program in Pharmacy Leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy Degree. Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. 2012. Available at: https://www.acpe-accredit.org/pdf/FinalS2007'.pdf
  26. ^ Accreditation Terms. Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. 2012.Available at: https://www.acpe-accredit.org/pdf/Accreditation_Terms.pdf
  27. ^ Pharmacist State Licensing Requirements
  28. ^ Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties
  29. ^ ABAT Certification Examination Credentialing Information
  30. ^ 2010 Pharmacy Compensation Survey – Spring Edition PharmacyOneSource.com

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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