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Residency by country
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In each specialties there are subspecialties.
The residency lasts four years (that leads to the title pharmacist specialist in Hospital Pharmacy which is the official title required to work as a hospital pharmacist). There are several minors sub-specialties (not official) such as Oncology pharmacy, Nutritional pharmacy, Infectious disease pharmacy, Ambulatory Care pharmacy, Clinical Trials Management, Drug Information pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacokinetics.
Spanish Pharmacists can also major in other specialties such as Clinical Biochemistry, Microbiology and Parasitology, Immunology, Clinical/biological Analysis, Nuclear Pharmacy or Radiopharmacy, Pharmaceutical Analysis and Industrial Pharmacy.
In the United States of America
The first year is generally referred to as post graduate year 1 or PGY1. A second year is referred to as a PGY2 and places emphasis on a specialty practice area. Each residency is a year long endeavor although some programs are combining a PGY1 and PGY2 into a two-year endeavor. For the residency year beginning in 2012, 1443 accredited programs participated in the ASHP Resident matching program.  In total, 2594 residents were placed within these programs. 
There are three different kinds of PGY1's, as recognized by American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. These are Pharmacy Practice (based in hospital setting), Community Pharmacy residency in partnership with the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) (based in a community pharmacy) and Managed Care Pharmacy residency in partnership with the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP) (based in managed care organizations such as health plans or pharmacy benefit management companies [PBMs]). 
The Pharmacy Practice residency usually covers a wide array of topics and deems one eligible for Board Certification in Pharmacotherapy Specialty.
The Community Pharmacy residency usually covers many issues at hand with patients coming to community pharmacies and provides in depth knowledge of patient medication adherence patterns, medication therapy management, and collaborative drug therapy management with associated practitioners with prescribing authorities.
The Managed Care Pharmacy residency trains pharmacists to deliver pharmaceutical care utilizing three practice models: 1) individual patient care in which the pharmacist communicates findings and recommendations to patients and those health care providers who provide care directly to the patient; 2) care provided to targeted groups of patients in which the pharmacist designs, conducts, monitors and evaluates the outcomes of organized and structured programs; and 3) population care management in which the pharmacist develops and implements medication-use policy.
To be considered for PGY1 equivalent experience the individual must have practiced at least THREE years as a PHARMACIST and must be licensed to practice as a pharmacist in the US (http://www.natmatch.com/ashprmp/pgy1exmp.pdf)
The PGY2 consists of many different sub-specialties. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists recognizes the following: Ambulatory Care; Biologics/Pharmacogenomics; Cardiology; Community; Critical Care; Drug Information; Emergency Medicine; Geriatrics; Health System Pharmacy Practice Administration; HIV; Infectious Diseases; Internal Medicine; Managed Care; Medication Use Safety; Nephrology; Nuclear Pharmacy; Nutrition Support Pharmacy; Oncology; Palliative Care/Pain Management; Pediatrics; Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research; Pharmacogenetics; Pharmacotherapy; Pharmacy Informatics; Psychiatric Pharmacy; Solid Organ Transplantation; Transition of Care. 
The PGY2 year further trains the pharmacist with symptoms, treatments (both drug and non-drug) in a particular area. Upon completion of a PGY2, one becomes eligible to take the Pharmacy Board Certification Exam for one of the seven specialties currently recognized by the Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties. These Specialties are psychiatry, nutritional support, oncology, pediatric, pharmacotherapy, nuclear pharmacy, and ambulatory care. 
After completion of PGY1 or PGY2, one can either choose to practice, pursue another residency, or a fellowship, which would train one to be an independent researcher.
There are separate fields called pharmacy fellowships programs, which are similar but separate paths. 
A typical residency in Canada consists of 12 months of structured rotations covering aspects such as pharmacy practice and administration, internal medicine, pediatrics, cardiology, surgery, nephrology, gastrointestinal systems, respirology, emergency medicine, intensive care, ambulatory care, and toxicology. Certain centres may have more specialized care, as is the case in cancer agencies and pediatric hospitals. This 12-month program is equivalent to the US's PGY1.
A second, more specialized residency is available in certain hospitals and institutions in Eastern Canada.
All accredited residencies are in collaboration with universities, local health authorities (government sectors), and the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists, CSHP.
Upon completion, the resident may use the title designation of ACPR (Accredited Canadian Pharmacy Resident).
- Reglementation for French Residency in Clinical Pathology (Biologie médicale)
- Curriculum Content of French Resident formation in Clinical Pathology, First Level
- Curriculum Content of French Resident formation in Clinical Pathology, Second Level
- Decreto 139/2003, de 7 de febrero, por el que se actualiza la regulación de la formación médica especializada. (Boletín Oficial del Estado del 14).
- Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists Pharmacy Practice Residency Program