Phenotypic switching

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Phenotypic switching (a.k.a. phenotypic dimorphism) is switching between two cell-types. An example is Candida albicans, which, when it infects host tissue, switches from the usual unicellular yeast-like form into an invasive, multicellular filamentous form.[1] This switching between two cell-types is known as dimorphism.

Phenotypic switching in C. albicans include the switch from white cells to opaque cells in need for sexual mating.

A second example occurs in Melanoma, where malignantly transformed pigment cells switch back-and-forth between phenotypes of proliferation and invasion in response to changing microenvironments, driving metastatic progression.[2][3][4]

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  1. ^ Kumamoto CA, Vinces MD (2005). "Contributions of hyphae and hypha-co-regulated genes to Candida albicans virulence". Cell. Microbiol. 7 (11): 1546–54. doi:10.1111/j.1462-5822.2005.00616.x. PMID 16207242. 
  2. ^ Hoek KS, Eichhoff OM, Schlegel NC, Dobbeling U, Kobert N, Schaerer L, Hemmi S, Dummer R (2008). "In vivo switching of human melanoma cells between proliferative and invasive states". Cancer Res. 68 (3): 650–6. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-2491. PMID 18245463. 
  3. ^ Hoek KS, Goding CR (2010). "Cancer stem cells versus phenotype-switching in melanoma". Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 23 (6): 746–59. doi:10.1111/j.1755-148X.2010.00757.x. PMID 20726948. 
  4. ^ Saez-Ayala M, Montenegro MF, Sanchez-del-Campo L, Fernandez-Perez MP, Chazarra S, Freter R, Middleton M, Pinero-Madrona A, Cabezas-Herrera J, Goding CR, Rodriguez-Lopez JN (2013). "Directed phenotype switching as an effective antimelanoma strategy". Cancer Cell 24 (1): 105–19. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2013.05.009. PMID 23792190. 

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