Phenylmercury acetate

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Phenylmercury acetate
Skeletal formula of phenylmercury acetate
Ball and stick model of the phenylmercury acetate molecule
Identifiers
CAS number 62-38-4 YesY
PubChem 16682730
ChemSpider 10294750 YesY
UNII OSX88361UX N
EC number 200-532-5
UN number 1674
KEGG D05464 N
MeSH Phenylmercuric+acetate
ChEBI CHEBI:27684 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL1333953 N
RTECS number OV6475000
Beilstein Reference 3662930
Gmelin Reference 83357
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Image 2
Properties
Molecular formula C8H8HgO2
Molar mass 336.74 g mol−1
Melting point 148 to 151 °C (298 to 304 °F; 421 to 424 K)
Hazards
MSDS Oxford MSDS
EU Index 080-011-00-5
EU classification Toxic T Dangerous for the Environment (Nature) N
R-phrases R25, R34, R48/24/25, R50/53
S-phrases (S1/2), S23, S24/25, S37, S45, S60, S61
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

Phenylmercuric acetate is an organomercury compound. This compound was formerly used as a preservative in paints,[1] and as a disinfectant.[2] When applied to the leaves of plants, it is an antitranspirant.[3]

Applications[edit]

Phenylmercuric acetate (PMA) has been used against antifungal activity in agriculture and in leather processing and has known to work well. PMA has also been used as an additive in eye-drops and paint in order to preserve them, as a disinfectant, and as a catalyst in polyurethane systems.[4][5] In the 1950s-1970s, PMA was used as a catalyst in the 3M Tartan brand polyurethane flexible floors that were commonly in school gymnasiums.[5] School officials worried that mercury vapor was being released into air above the surface of these floors. They had to be carefully removed since mercury is such a toxic heavy metal.

Findings[edit]

The study on PMA as an anti-fungal is the most studied topic for this compound. It has been found that plants treated with PMA transpired more due to the retarded stomatal closure in the plants. Day-time reductions in transpiration by PMA greatly exceed night-time increases in water loss. PMA stunts stomatal closures as well as openings.[6] Research has found that PMA may plausibly decrease the absorbency of guard cell membranes to solutes, thereby retarding all stomatal movements that are osmotically prompted.[6]

Hazards[edit]

PMA can cause Contact Urticaria Syndrome (CUS). Contact urticaria refers to a wheal-and-flare response occurring on the application of chemicals to intact skin. A wheal-and-flare response is a skin eruption that may follow injury or injection of an antigen. It is characterized by swelling and redness caused by a release of histamine. The reaction usually occurs in three stages, beginning with the appearance of an erythematous area at the site of injury, followed by development of a flare surrounding the site; finally a wheal forms at the site as fluid leaks under the skin from surrounding capillaries.[7] CUS has been categorized as an immediate hypersensitivity reaction with IgE (a type of anti-body) playing a crucial role in its pathogenesis.[8] Investigations dealing with CUS seem to suggest that a percentage of urticarias encompass a contact mechanism.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Simon, Matthias; Jönk, Peter; Wühl-Couturier, Gabriele; Halbach, Stefan (2006). "Mercury, Mercury Alloys, and Mercury Compounds". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a16_269.pub2. ISBN 978-3-527-30673-2. 
  2. ^ Siebert, Jörg; Harke, Hans-Peter (2009). "Disinfectants". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a08_551.pub2. ISBN 978-3-527-30673-2. 
  3. ^ Moreshet, S. (1975). "Effects of Phenyl-Mercuric Acetate on Stomatal and Cuticular Resistance to Transpiration". New Phytologist 75 (1): 47–52. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1975.tb01369.x. JSTOR 2431139. 
  4. ^ Geier, J.; Lessmann, H.; Uter, W.; Schnuch, A. (2005). "Patch testing with phenylmercuric acetate". Contact Dermatitis 53 (2): 117–8. doi:10.1111/j.0105-1873.2005.0650d.x. PMID 16033409. 
  5. ^ a b Beaulieu, Harry J.; Beaulieu, Serrita; Brown, Chris (2008). "Phenyl Mercuric Acetate (PMA): Mercury-Bearing Flexible Gymnasium Floors in Schools — Evaluation of Hazards and Controlled Abatement". Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 5 (6): 360–6. doi:10.1080/15459620802017425. PMID 18365889. 
  6. ^ a b Xu, Y.; Zhao, D.; Gao, C.; Zhou, L.; Pang, G.; Sun, S. (2012). "In vitro activity of phenylmercuric acetate against ocular pathogenic fungi". Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 67 (8): 1941–4. doi:10.1093/jac/dks133. PMID 22514262. 
  7. ^ Maibach, H. I.; Johnson, H. L. (1975). "Contact Urticaria Syndrome: Contact Urticaria to Diethyltoluamide (Immediate-Type Hypersensitivity)". Archives of Dermatology 111 (6): 726–30. doi:10.1001/archderm.1975.01630180054004. PMID 1137416. 
  8. ^ a b Torresani, Claudio; Caprari, Elisabetta; Manara, Gian Carlo (1993). "Contact urticaria syndrome due to phyenylmercuric acetate". Contact Dermatitis 29 (5): 282–3. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1993.tb03574.x. PMID 8112079.