|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Excretion||Urine ~40% bile and perspiration ~60%|
|Mol. mass||218.3 g/mol|
|Boiling point||486.4 °C (908 °F)|
|(what is this?)|
Phenylpiracetam (Phenotropil, Carphedon) is a phenylated derivative of the nootropic drug piracetam. It is used as a stimulant nootropic drug that can be up to 30-60 times more potent than piracetam. It was developed in Russia in 1983, and a small number of low-scale clinical studies have shown possible links between prescription of phenylpiracetam and improvement in a number of encephalopathic conditions, including lesions of cerebral blood pathways, traumatic brain injury and certain types of glioma.
Phenylpiracetam reverses the depressant effects of the benzodiazapine diazepam, increases operant behavior, inhibits post-rotational nystagmus, prevents retrograde amnesia and has anticonvulsant properties.
In rats, it has been found to decrease the number of nACh and NMDA receptors and increase the density of D1, D2 and D3 receptors.
Phenylpiracetam has recently gained niche popularity from online nootropics suppliers in the US and other countries outside of Russia. Given its lack of abuse potential, Phenylpiracetam is not scheduled by the DEA, and is legal for personal use.
Because it increases physical stamina and provides improved tolerance to cold weather, it appears on the lists of banned substances issued by the World Anti-Doping Agency. This list is applicable in all Olympic sports.
Russian biathlon Olympic silver medalist Olga Pyleva in the 2006 Winter Olympics was disqualified from attending further events following a positive drug test. She was subsequently banned from competition for two years.
Phenylpiracetam has a flash point of 247.9°C and boiling point of 486.4°C at 760 mmHg.
- Phensuximide, Phenylpiracetam's succinimide analog
- Doping in sport
- Phenotropil (Russian)
- Malykh, A. G.; Sadaie, M. R. (2010). "Piracetam and Piracetam-Like Drugs". Drugs 70 (3): 287–312. doi:10.2165/11319230-000000000-00000. PMID 20166767.
- Savchenko, A. I.; Zakharova, N. S.; Stepanov, I. N. (2005). "The phenotropil treatment of the consequences of brain organic lesions". Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova 105 (12): 22–26. PMID 16447562.
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- Bobkov, I.; Morozov, I. S.; Glozman, O. M.; Nerobkova, L. N.; Zhmurenko, L. A. (1983). "Pharmacological characteristics of a new phenyl analog of piracetam--4-phenylpiracetam". Biulleten' eksperimental'noi biologii i meditsiny 95 (4): 50–53. PMID 6403074.
- Kim, S.; Park, J. H.; Myung, S. W.; Lho, D. S. (1999). "Determination of carphedon in human urine by solid-phase microextraction using capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection". The Analyst 124 (11): 1559–1562. PMID 10746314.
- List of Controlled Substances
- CNN, "Runners fail pre-Olympics doping tests", Retrieved on 2008-08-09.
- CAS No.:77472-70-9