Philadelphia crime family
|Founding location||South Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Territory||Various neighborhoods in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Territory in Atlantic City, South Jersey, and Wilmington (as well as Baltimore and Trenton).|
|Ethnicity||Men of Italian descent. Other ethnicities employed as "associates"|
|Membership||50 made members approx, 100 associates approx|
|Criminal activities||Extortion, bookmaking, loan-sharking, gambling and sports betting, racketeering, prostitution, labor racketeering, conspiracy, drug trafficking, money laundering and murder.|
|Allies||Five Families, Chicago Outfit, Patriarca crime family, DeCavalcante crime family, K&A Gang, Warlocks Motorcycle Club, Philadelphia Greek Mob, 10th and Oregon Crew/Gang, Black Mafia, Jewish mob, Sicilian Mafia|
|Rivals||various other gangs throughout Philadelphia, including their allies, occasionally 10th and Oregon Crew/Gang and The Pagans.|
The Philadelphia crime family, also known as the Bruno crime family, Scarfo crime family, Philadelphia Mafia, Philadelphia Mob, Philly Mafia, or Philly Mob, is an Italian American criminal organization based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of the most active American Mafia families outside of the Five Families of New York. The family has been known to hold territory or influence in other nearby areas outside Philadelphia and throughout the Delaware Valley, including Atlantic City, South Jersey, Trenton, Camden, Newark, Chester, Pennsylvania, Wilmington, Delaware, and Baltimore. The Philadelphia family is notorious for its violence, due in particular to its succession of very violent bosses and multiple mob wars.
Under Angelo Bruno (1910–1980), or the "Gentle Don," the family enjoyed its most peaceful and prosperous reign. He was murdered in 1980, setting off a brutal mob war that lasted over a year until Nicky Scarfo took over as boss. Scarfo openly involved the family in narcotics, which Bruno had refused to do. Unlike Bruno, Scarfo was infamous for his short temper and penchant for violence. Scarfo's bloody tenure throughout the 1980s saw the murder of over 30 of his own men. Eventually, he and many his supporters were imprisoned. Following Scarfo's imprisonment, a power vacuum led to yet another mob war and period of unrest that lasted throughout the 1990s until the early 2000s. The unrest was largely the result of two warring factions: the "Young Turks," or the younger American-born members led by Joseph Merlino, and the older traditional mafiosi led by Sicilian-born John Stanfa. Following the imprisonment of Stanfa, Joey Merlino took control of the family. Merlino was later imprisoned in 2001, at which point Joseph Ligambi took over.
- 1 History
- 2 Current leaders and membership
- 3 Historical leadership
- 4 Government Informants
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
In the early 20th century, several Italian immigrant and Italian-American Philadelphia street gangs joined to form what would eventually become the Philadelphia crime family. Salvatore Sabella was the first leader of the group that would later bear his name. They busied themselves with bootlegging, extortion, loansharking, and illegal gambling, and it was during the Prohibition era that Sabella and his crew were recognized as members of the wider Sicilian crime syndicate of New York and Chicago. Sabella retired in late 1931.
John Avena and Joe Dovi
After Sabella's retirement, two of his top lieutenants, John Avena and Giuseppe Dovi, began a five-year war for control of the family. Avena was murdered by members of his own faction on August 17, 1936, and Joseph "Joe Bruno" Dovi became boss of the Philadelphia family.
Dovi had good connections with the Chicago Outfit and the Five Families of New York, and expanded operations to Atlantic City, South Philadelphia, and parts of South Jersey. Narcotics, illegal gambling, loansharking, and extortion activities provided the family's income, and connections to the Genovese and Gambino crime families grew throughout the 1930s and early 1940s.
On October 22, 1946, Dovi died of natural causes at a New York City hospital, and Joseph "Joe" Ida was appointed by the Commission to run the Philadelphia family and its rackets.
Influenced by Vito Genovese
Joseph "Joe" Ida ran the family throughout the 1940s and early 1950s. Ida and the Philadelphia organization were heavily influenced by the bosses of the Five Families, especially the Genovese crime family, which sought to control both families as Vito Genovese, underboss of the Genovese crime family, assumed control in 1956 after the shooting of former boss Frank Costello, who subsequently retired due to illness. As the Philadelphia family gained more power in Atlantic City and South Jersey, they were viewed as a large faction of the Genovese crime family. Ida and his underboss Dominick Olivetto were present during the 1957 Apalachin Convention with roughly 100 other top mobsters. Around this time, Philadelphia separated from the Genovese crime family, and were given a seat in the national Mafia body, The Commission. The meeting was raided by US law enforcement, and over 60 mafioso were arrested and indicted for association with known organized crime members. Ida was named in the indictment and fled to Sicily not long after the meeting, leaving Antonio "Mr. Migs" Pollina as acting boss in Ida's absence.
The Gentle Don
After Ida retired in 1959, and Pollina was demoted, Angelo "Gino" Bruno, nicknamed "The Gentle Don", was appointed by the Commission to run the Philadelphia family. Bruno, the first boss of Philadelphia with a seat at the Commission, gained much respect in the underworld and was soon seen as the most powerful Mafia boss outside the New York and Chicago area. He expanded the family's profit and operations in lucrative Atlantic City, which had now become known as the Philadelphia family's turf. Bruno himself avoided the intense media and law enforcement scrutiny and outbursts of violence that plagued other crime families, and avoided lengthy prison terms, despite several arrests. His longest prison term was two years for refusing to testify to a grand jury. In addition, Bruno did not allow his family to deal in narcotics, or to participate in any part of the drug trafficking that led to Vito Genovese's 15-year prison sentence in 1959. Apparently, Bruno preferred more traditional operations, including labor racketeering, illegal gambling, extortion, bookmaking, and loansharking. During the early 1960s, the Philadelphia family was officially recognized as the Bruno family.
Philadelphia Mafia War
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On March 12, 1980, Bruno was returning home after dinner at a restaurant and as the car stopped he was suddenly shot in the back of his head. He died instantly. The killing was committed by capos Frank Sindone and John Simone, and was orchestrated by his consigliere, Antonio Caponigro. That April, Caponigro visited New York City, apparently under the assumption he was about to be confirmed as boss. Instead, he was tortured and murdered. His driver that night, John Stanfa, escaped with only minor injuries and also became a suspect in the murder. Stanfa would eventually be sentenced to eight years for refusing to testify during the trials. Within weeks Caponigro was found dead in the trunk of his car, and Simone and Sindone were murdered in September and October 1980, respectively. Their plan to overthrow Bruno and take the lead had led to their own demise. In the aftermath of his murder, about 16 men were killed.
Bruno's funeral procession had over one hundred cars and there were about a thousand bystanders. He was buried in the family plot at Holy Cross Cemetery. He was succeeded as head of the family by Philip Testa, Bruno's underboss. Testa lasted as boss for just under a year, as on March 15, 1981, he was killed by a nail bomb. Testa's murder was believed to have been orchestrated by his own underboss, Peter Casella, in yet another attempt to take control of the family. Casella's power grab, however, was thwarted by Testa's consigliere Nicodemo "Little Nicky" Scarfo, who won the support of the New York families to take power himself and had Casella exiled from the territory of the Philly mob.
"Little Nicky" Scarfo
Pete Casella called a meeting with Scarfo soon after Testa's death. Casella told Scarfo that, at a meeting with Paul Castellano and Fat Tony Salerno, he had been made the new Boss and that Narducci was to be the new underboss. Scarfo was suspicious and set up a meeting with the two New York Bosses the next day. At that meeting, Scarfo discovered that Casella had been lying.
Scarfo gave the Gambino and Genovese families permission to operate in Atlantic City in exchange for their backing for him to become Boss. With their backing, Scarfo easily took over the Philadelphia family, promoting Frank Monte to consigliere and Salvatore "Chuckie" Merlino to underboss. Scarfo soon cut a deal with the other families allowing them a piece of the action in Atlantic City while keeping a significant slice for himself.
Little Nicky forced Casella into "retirement" in Florida and promoted Leonetti, Salvatore Testa, Lawrence "Yogi" Merlino and Ciancaglini to captains of their respective crews. When Scarfo became the Boss, he wanted to unify the organization and dreamed of running a smooth criminal empire.
Scarfo soon installed a mob practice somewhat alien to Philadelphia criminals. The "street tax" was enforced by soldiers like Tommy DelGiorno and associates like Nick "The Crow" Caramandi. The tax was paid by any criminal working independently from the Mafia. Drug dealers, bookmakers, pimps and guys running numbers in the territory that Scarfo deemed his own were forced to pay his "street tax" weekly. The money was then divided between the guys collecting the tax (who got 50%) and their caporegimes or bosses.
In April of that year, Scarfo was convicted in federal court in Camden, N.J. of possession of a firearm by a convicted felon. But sentencing wasn't until August of next year. So Nicky continued as normal.
Chelsais Bouras was enjoying a meal in a restaurant with his girlfriend Janette Curro and several other friends, including Ray Martorano, when a man entered and motioned for Martorano to get out of the way as he took aim. The hit man opened fire killing Bouras and his girlfriend Curro. Scarfo ordered the death of Greek Mob Boss Chelsais because he had been horning in on the methamphetamine trade in Philadelphia and not paying Scarfo's "street tax."
Johnny Calabrese and Ciancaglini walked from Cous' Little Italy, a restaurant owned by Tommy DelGiorno, who had bought it from the Piccolo brothers. As Calabrese and Ciancaglini walked Tommy DelGiorno and Frank "Faffy" Iannarella ran up behind them. When the shooting started, Chickie casually walked away. Four bullets killed Calabrese, and his killers escaped in a car driven by Pat Spirito. Johnny Calabrese was a loan shark and drug dealer who operated through a chain of pawn shops in Atlantic City. Calabrese had refused to pay the "street tax." Scarfo was more than pleased with how DelGiorno and Iannarella had handled the assignment.
After Calabrese was left dying in the gutter by Scarfo's hit men, Frankie "Flowers" D'Alfonso was brutally beaten by Salvatore Testa and Joey Pungitore for refusing to pay the "street tax."
In 1982, Tommy DelGiorno, "Faffy" Iannarella, Joseph J. Scarfo (aka "The Shark") and Pat "The Cat" Spirito were formally inducted into the Philadelphia crime family. The ceremony was held at the Buena Tavern in Vineland, New Jersey.
Chickie Narducci's borrowed time finally ran out when Scarfo gave Salvie Testa permission to kill him. Narducci was shot six times in the chest and face by Testa and Joey Pungitore. Narducci's bullet riddled corpse was left in the gutter.
Nicky Scarfo wanted Dominic DeVito aka "Mickey Diamond" dead, but couldn't have him killed because of the friendship DeVito had with his Scarfo's friend Nick Caramandi. Finally, Scarfo decided that he'd have DeVito killed and anyone else that didn't follow his orders as he saw fit. He gave the contract to Funzi and Mark Marconi to test their loyalty to him. They proved themselves loyal and shot DeVito in the head, then left his body in the trunk of a car.
In the aftermath of the hit, Pat "The Cat" Spirito was promoted to captain. Nick Caramandi acquired DeVito's loan sharking books and began collecting from the debtors. He gave DeVito's girlfriend $6,000 to pay for the funeral, but Caramandi made sure that every other penny went directly into Scarfo's pockets. Nick the Crow had clearly shown himself deeply loyal to Scarfo.
It had been one year since Phil Testa's murder when Salvie Testa shot Rocco Marinucci to death in a parking lot. In this act, Testa had finally got his revenge for his father's death. The police later found three unexploded firecrackers lodged in Marinucci's mouth, a reference to the explosion used to murder the elder Testa.
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Merlino takes over
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The rise of Ligambi
Joseph Ligambi, who took over as the official boss in 2001, stabilized the family, increased membership and, more importantly, restored relations with the New York families. He had to contend with the damage Joey Merlino had done to the family's relationship with illegal bookmakers, who refused to do business with the Philadelphia crime family because Merlino made huge bets, then never paid when he lost. The family currently consists of approximately 50 members, half of whom are incarcerated, in addition to almost 100 associates. Around a dozen made men will be released from prison in the following years, filling the ranks. Many of these men were young players who fell victim to the unstable Scarfo and Merlino eras, and are now middle-aged. Much of the Philadelphia family's earnings come from illegal poker machines. Ligambi is now considered, by the FBI and the New York families, the indefinite godfather of the Philadelphia Mafia. In contrast to Merlino, Ligambi maintains a low profile, and is more interested in making money than headlines. He named Anthony Staino, his closest and most loyal associate, as his underboss.
Ligambi created a tight-knit group around the family's new leadership, rarely conducting business without going through intermediaries, thereby insulating himself from law enforcement scrutiny. His inner circle includes longtime Philadelphia mobsters such as Joseph "Mousie" Massimino, Gateon Lucibello, and Michael "Mikey Lance" Lancelotti. Recently released Merlino faction leaders Martin Angelina, John Ciancaglini, and Steven Mazzone have also appeared to have fallen in line behind Ligambi. What role Merlino would have when his parole restrictions expired was unknown. Merlino was released from prison on March 15, 2011, and served six months in a halfway house in Florida.
On May 23, 2011, Ligambi and 12 other members and associates of the crime family were indicted by the FBI on racketeering charges related to illegal gambling operations and loan sharking. A superseding indictment added three more defendants to the case. Steve Mazzone, who was not charged and is not on probation, has been named acting boss as a result of the arrests made. Merlino is reportedly running the crime family from Florida, and may have been in charge the entire time he was in prison. Five of those charged pleaded guilty to lesser charges. One became a government witness and seven went to trial in October 2012. The defendants were acquitted on 45 counts, found guilty on five counts, and a were undecided (hung jury) on 11 counts. Ligambi and Borgesi were not convicted of any charges. Facing a retrial, Staino took a plea agreement, while Ligambi and Borgesi were retried on the counts on which the jury was split. On January 24, 2014, Borgesi was acquitted and released from prison, while Ligambi was acquitted of one charge and the jury was hung again on the other four.
Current leaders and membership
- Boss - Joseph "Skinny Joey" Merlino
- Underboss - Joseph Massimino. In 2004, he pled guilty to charges of racketeering related to gambling and loan sharking, and was sentenced to 10 years in prison. As of October 2012, he was on trial for additional charges of racketeering related to electronic gambling devices.
- Consigliere - George Borgesi. Ligambi's nephew, he was scheduled to be released from prison on July 3, 2012, before being charged with overseeing a loan sharking operation in Delaware County from his prison cell in North Carolina. His relationship with Ligambi is said to be strained. The two have a couple of other members of their family working as associates for the Philadelphia crime family.
South Philadelphia faction
- Capo - Michael "Mikey Lance" Lancelotti. A smart and low-key captain described by authorities, has never been sentenced or charged for a serious crime. Lancelotti has only been charged in 2004 for assault.
- Soldier - Anthony Nicodemo. He was charged with the murder of Gino DiPietro, and was a suspect in 2003 when John Casasanto was gunned down. He is currently on trial for murder.
- Soldier - Frank Gambino. Gambino and four other Philadelphia crime family members allegedly stole $405,871 worth of goods from a Philadelphia shipping port.
- Soldier - Salvatore "Sonny" Mazzone. He is the brother of Philadelphia crime family acting boss, Steve Mazzone, who attacked and bit off a part of a civilian's nose on the streets of Philadelphia.
- Soldier - John "Johnny Chang" Ciancaglini. A known criminal in Philadelphia, his family can be traced back to Nicky Scarfo's teenage years. Ciancaglini's father is currently serving a 45-year prison sentence for racketeering back in 1988. He also has served prison, on an extortion charge for a full nine-year sentence.
South New Jersey faction
- Capo - Anthony Staino. He was charged with loansharking after a Philadelphia bookie, Henry Scipione, failed to pay Staino his $80,000. Scipione testified against Staino and said that Staino threatened to put a bullet in his head.
- Soldier - Anthony Borgesi. Philip Ligambi and Borgesi were charged in 1994 with assault on a mother and her 16-year-old son over a business deal.
North New Jersey faction
- Capo - Martin "Marty" Angelina. In 2001, he was convicted of racketeering with Joey Merlino, and was sentenced to 78 months. In September 2012, he was sentenced to 57 months on racketeering, loansharking and illegal gambling charges.
- Capo - Joseph "Scoops" Licata. A former acting captain, he was sentenced to 14 years in 1994 after George Fresolone recorded secret conversations, and Licata was charged under major gambling operations in Newark.
- Soldier - Vincent "Beeps" Centorino. In 1994, he and other high-profile Philadelphia crime family mobsters, including Nicky Scarfo Jr., were tapped by the FBI, and all pleaded guilty.
Boss (official, acting and front)
- 1911-1931 — Salvatore Sabella — retired, deceased in 1962.
- 1931-1936 — John "Nazzone" Avena — murdered on August 17, 1936.
- 1936-1946 — Giuseppe "Joseph Bruno" Dovi
- 1946-1959 — Giuseppe "Joseph" Ida — deported in 1958, deceased in 1960s-1970s.
- Acting 1958-1959 — Antonio "Mr. Miggs" Pollina — deposed by Commission.
- 1959-1980 — Angelo "The Gentle Don" Bruno — murdered on March 21, 1980.
- 1980-1981 — Philip "the Chicken Man" Testa — murdered on March 15, 1981.
- 1981-1991 — Nicodemo "Little Nicky" Scarfo — imprisoned for life.
- 1991-1994 — Giovanni "John" Stanfa — imprisoned for life.
- 1994-2012 — Joseph "Skinny Joey" Merlino — arrested in 1999, retired in 2012.
- 2012–present — Joseph "Uncle Joe" Ligambi
- Acting 2012-2014 — Steven "Handsome Stevie" Mazzone
Underbosses (official and acting)
- 1911-1931 — John "Nazzone" Avena — became boss.
- 1931-1936 — Giuseppe "Joseph Bruno" Dovi — became boss.
- 1936-1946 — Giuseppe "Joseph" Ida — became boss.
- 1946-1956 — Marco "Small Man" Reginelli
- 1956-1957 — Dominick Olivetto — retired.
- 1957-1959 — Antonio "Mr. Miggs" Pollina — deposed by Commission.
- 1959-1970 — Ignazio "Natz" Denaro
- 1970-1980 — Philip "the Chicken Man" Testa — became boss.
- 1980-1981 — Peter "Petey" Casella — deposed by Commission.
- 1981-1986 — Salvatore "Chuckie" Merlino — imprisoned in 1986, deceased in 2012.
- Acting 1982-1984 — Salvatore "Salvie" Testa — murdered on September 14, 1984.
- 1986-1989 — Philip "Crazy Phil" Leonetti — turned informant.
- 1989-1990 — Pasquale "Patty Specs" Martirano
- 1990-1994 — Joseph "Joey Chang" Ciancaglini Jr. — shoted, paralyzed and incapacited.
- Acting 1992-1994 — Frank Martines
- 1994-1999 — Joseph "Skinny Joey" Merlino — became official boss.
- 1999-2004 — Steven "Handsome Stevie" Mazzone — imprisoned in 2001, deposed by Commission.
- Acting 2004-2004 — Joseph Massimino
- 2004–present — Joseph "Mousie" Massimino — imprisoned June 2004 – 2010.
Consigliere (official and acting)
- 1911-1931 — Giuseppe "Joseph Bruno" Dovi — became underboss.
- 1931-1936 — Giuseppe "Joseph" Ida — became underboss.
- 1936-1946 — Marco "Small man" Reginelli — became underboss.
- 1946-1977 — Giuseppe "Joe the Boss" Rugnetta
- 1977-1980 — Antonio "Tony Bananas" Caponigro — murdered by Commission.
- 1980-1981 — Nicodemo "Little Nicky" Scarfo — became boss.
- 1981-1982 — Frank Monte — murdered.
- 1982-1989 — Nicholas "Nicky Buck" Piccolo
- Acting 1984-1987 — Anthony Piccolo
- 1989-1994 — Anthony "Tony Buck" Piccolo — imprisoned for life, deceased in 2004.
- 1994-1996 — Ronald "Ronnie" Turchi — demoted, murdered in 1999.
- 1996-1999 — Steven "Handsome Stevie" Mazzone — promoted underboss.
- 1999–present — George "Frekles" Borgesi — imprisoned in 2001-2012.
- Acting 2001-2004 — Joseph "Joe Crutch" Curro
- Acting 2004-2012 — Gaeton Lucibello
- "How the Pagans Bested the Mob | Cover Story | News and Opinion". Philadelphia Weekly. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- Anastasia (1991), pp. 91-92
- Anastasia (1991), pp. 106-109, 112
- George Anastasia (December 26, 2010). "Still Home for Holidays". The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- McGarvey, Brendan. "Happy Birthday to Joe :: News :: Article :: Philadelphia City Paper". Citypaper.net. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- McGarvey, Brendan. "Sins of the Fathers". Citypaper.net. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- "Police data show Philadelphia mob in decline". New Criminologist. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- "Waste And Abuse" (PDF). State.nj.us. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- Porello, Rick (December 17, 2001). "Meet The New Boss". AmericanMafia.com (Internet).
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- "Merlino still runs Philly mob, court document says". Philly.com. 2012-05-04. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
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- FBI Makes Major La Cosa Nostra Arrests In Philidelphia [sic] (May 23, 2011) Justice Department Section
- Reputed mob boss Ligambi and others indicted on gambling, loan-sharking charges by George Anastasia (May 24, 2011) Philly.com
- George Anastasia (July 23, 2009). "Mob underboss seeks sentence reduction Joseph Massimino, who ran a gambling operation in South Jersey and Pa., has served half of a 10-year term.". Philadelphia Media Network. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- WILLIAM BENDER; MORGAN ZALOT (Dec 13, 2012). "Apparent mob hit in South Philadelphia". Philadelphia Media Network. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- Barry Leibowitz (May 23, 2011). "Alleged Phila. mob boss, a dozen more, hit with federal indictment for rackateering, gambling - Crimesider - CBS News". CBS News. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- "Ex-mob consigliere Borgesi pleads not guilty". Philly.com. 2011-06-15. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
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- [dead link]
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- "Informant testifies at Ligambi trial". Philly.com. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
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- "U.S. Says Reputed Mobsters Fenced Bikes and Baby Goods". NY Times. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
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- "Prosecution witness says Staino seldom threatened him". Philly.com. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "Reputed Mob Associates Charged In Attack On Mother, Son Anthony Borgesi, 29, And Philip Ligambi, 24, Are Charged. Police Say The Fight Was Over A Business Deal.". Philly.com. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "Mobster receives 57 months for racketeering". Philly.com. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "Mob Boss Sentenced To 14 Years Joseph Licata Admitted Having Headed A Loan-sharking And Gambling Ring In The '80s.". Philly.com. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- "Secret Tape Captures A Mob Initiation Rite A Bombshell Lands On 'Tony Buck' Piccolo.". Philly.com. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- Joseph Merlino: The mobster next door
- Underboss sentenced as war on mob continues Merlino associate Steven Mazzone was given a nine-year term. The probes go on, authorities say by George Anastasia (December 06, 2001) Philly.com
- Mob underboss seeks sentence reduction Joseph Massimino, who ran a gambling operation in South Jersey and Pa., has served half of a 10-year term. by George Anastasia (June 23, 2009) Philly.com
- Who’s Who Now In The Philly Mob September 4, 2009
- Reputed Mob Underboss Wins Bail Release Myfoxphilly.com
- "A Crow Turns Stool Pigeon: NICHOLAS CARAMANDI". Time.com. 1991-06-17. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
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- "Former 'Capo': 'I Was Underpaid'". CBS News. 2007-12-05. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
- Anastasia, George. Blood and Honor: Inside the Scarfo Mob, the Mafia's Most Violent Family. 2004, ISBN 0940159864
- Anastasia, George. Goodfella Tapes.
- Anastasia, George. The Last Gangster.
- Wagman, Robert J. Blood Oath.
- Morello, Celeste Anne. Book One Before Bruno: The History of the Mafia and La Cosa Nostra in Philadelphia. Publication date: 4/28/2000, ISBN 9780967733418
- Morello, Celeste Anne. Book Two Before Bruno: The History of the Philadelphia Mafia, 1931-1946. Publication date: 11/28/2001, ISBN 9780967733425
- Morello, Celeste Anne. Book Three Before Bruno and How He Became Boss: The History of the Philadelphia Mafia, Book 3--1946-1959. Publication date: 8/28/2005, ISBN 9780977053209
- "Hitting the Hit Men Even alleged killers can be beaten up by a gang of thugs" by Brendan McGarvey
- IPSN: The Philadelphia/Atlantic City Mob