Philip I of Castile

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"Philip the Handsome" redirects here. For Philip the Fair, see Philip IV of France.
Philip I
Juan de Flandes 004.jpg
King of Castile and Léon
Reign 27 June 1506 – 25 September 1506
Predecessor Joanna I
Successor Joanna I
Co-monarch Joanna I
Duke of Burgundy
Reign 27 March 1482 – 25 September 1506
Predecessor Mary I and Maximilian I
Successor Charles II
Regent Maximilian I (1482–1494)
Spouse Joanna of Castile
Issue Eleanor, Queen of Portugal and France
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Isabella, Queen of Denmark
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Mary, Queen of Bohemia
Catherine, Queen of Portugal
House House of Habsburg
Father Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Mary, Duchess of Burgundy
Born 22 July 1478
Bruges, Flanders
Died 25 September 1506(1506-09-25) (aged 28)
Burgos, Castile
Burial Royal Chapel of Granada
Religion Roman Catholicism

Philip I[1] (22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506)[2] known as Philip the Handsome or the Fair, was the first member of the house of Habsburg to be King of Castile. The son of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Philip inherited the greater part of the Duchy of Burgundy and the Burgundian Netherlands (as Philip IV) from his mother, Mary of Burgundy, and briefly succeeded to the Crown of Castile as the husband of Queen Joanna of Castile, who was also heiress-presumptive to the Crown of Aragon. He was the first Habsburg monarch in Spain. He never inherited his father's territories, nor became Holy Roman Emperor, because he predeceased his father, but his son Emperor Charles V eventually united the Habsburg, Burgundian, Castilian, and Aragonese inheritances.

The future King Henry VIII of England met Philip the Handsome on a visit Philip made to Henry's father's court in London, and regarded him as providing a model of leadership towards which he aspired. The two would become brothers-in-law since Philip married Joanna of Castile, and Henry married Joanna's youngest sister, Catherine of Aragon.[3]

Holland, gold florin 'Philippus Goudgulden', struck in Dordrecht under the reign of Philip the Fair

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Philip was born in Bruges to Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor during the reign of his grandfather Frederick III in the County of Flanders (today in Belgium) and was named after his great-grandfather, Philip the Good, grandfather of his mother Mary. In 1482, upon the death of his mother, he succeeded to her Burgundian possessions under the guardianship of his father. A period of turmoil ensued which witnessed sporadic hostilities between, principally, the large towns of Flanders (especially Ghent and Bruges) and the supporters of Maximilian.

During this interregnum, Philip became caught up in events and was even briefly sequestered in Bruges as part of the larger Flemish campaign to support their claims of greater autonomy, which they had wrested from Mary of Burgundy in an agreement known as the Great Privilege of 1477. By the early 1490s, the turmoil of the interregnum gave way to an uneasy stand-off, with neither French support for the cities of the Franc (Flanders), nor Imperial support from Philip's grandfather, Emperor Frederick III proving decisive. Both sides came to terms in the Treaty of Senlis in 1493, when Emperor Frederick died and Philip's father Maximilian became the new emperor. This smoothed over the internal power struggle as the two sides agreed to make the 15-year-old Philip prince in the following year.

The Burgundian inheritance and the Spanish alliance[edit]

In 1494, Maximilian relinquished his regency under the terms of the Treaty of Senlis and Philip, aged 16, took over the rule of the Burgundian lands himself, although in practice authority was derived from a council of Burgundian notables. On 20 October 1496, he married Infanta Joanna, daughter of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, in Lier, Belgium.[4]

The marriage was one of a set of family alliances between the Habsburgs and the Trastámara, designed to strengthen against growing French power, which had increased significantly thanks to the policies of Louis XI and the successful assertion of regal power after war with the League of the Public Weal. The matter became more urgent after Charles VIII's invasion of Italy (known as the First Peninsular War).

Philip's sister Margaret married John, Prince of Asturias, only son of Ferdinand and Isabella and successor to the unified crowns of Castile and Aragon.[5] The double alliance was never intended to let the Spanish kingdoms fall under Habsburg control. At the time of her marriage to Philip, Joanna was third in line to the throne, with John and his sister Isabella married and hopeful of progeny.

The Castilian inheritance[edit]

In 1500, shortly after the birth in Flanders of Joanna and Philip's second child (the future Emperor Charles V), the succession to the Castilian and Aragonese crowns was thrown into turmoil. The heir apparent, John, had died in 1497 very shortly after his marriage to Margaret of Austria. The succession thereby passed to Queen Isabella and King Manuel I of Portugal. She died in 1498, while giving birth to a son, the Infante Miguel, to whom succession to the united crowns of Castile, Aragon and Portugal now fell; however, the infant was sickly and died during the summer of 1500. The succession to the Castilian and Aragonese crowns now fell to Joanna. Because Ferdinand could produce another heir, the Cortes of Aragon refused to recognise Joanna as heir presumptive to the Kingdom of Aragon. In the Kingdom of Castile, however, the succession was clear. Moreover, there was no Salic tradition which the Castilian Cortes could use to thwart the succession passing to Joanna. At this point, the issue of Joanna's mental incompetence moved from courtly annoyance to the centre of the political stage, since it was clear that Philip and his Burgundian entourage would be the real power-holders in Castile.

In 1502, Philip, Joanna and a large part of the Burgundian court travelled to Spain to receive fealty from the Cortes of Castile as king, a journey chronicled in intense detail by Antoon I van Lalaing (French: Antoine de Lalaing), the future Stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland. Philip and the majority of the court returned to the Low Countries in the following year, leaving a pregnant Joanna behind in Madrid, where she gave birth to Ferdinand, later Holy Roman Emperor. Philip's life with Joanna was rendered extremely unhappy by his infidelity and political insecurity, during which he consistently attempted to usurp her legal birthrights of power. This led in great part to the rumours of her insanity due to reports of depressive or neurotic acts committed while she was being imprisoned or coerced by her husband; most historians now agree she was merely clinically depressed at the time, not insane as commonly believed. Before her mother's death, in 1504, husband and wife were already living apart.

Struggle for power in Spain[edit]

In 1504, Philip's mother-in-law died, leaving the Crown of Castile to Joanna. Isabella I's widower and former co-monarch, King Ferdinand II, endeavoured to lay hands on the regency of Castile, but the nobles, who disliked and feared him, forced him to withdraw. Philip was summoned to Spain, where he was recognised as king.

However, en route to Spain in January 1506, Philip and Joanna were caught in a tempest and shipwrecked off the Dorset coast, forcing them on shore near Melcombe Regis. The couple stayed as guests of Henry VII of England but were in fact hostages for the duration of their stay. To get released Philip was forced to sign a treaty with Henry VII–the so-called Malus Intercursus–which included a mutual defence pact, the extradition of rebels, including the Earl of Suffolk who as an exile was a guest of Philip in the Low Countries, and a trade agreement which allowed English merchants to import cloth duty-free into the Low Countries. After handing over Suffolk, Philip and Joanna were allowed to leave England after a stay of six weeks.[6]

He landed, with his wife, at La Coruña on 28 April 1506, accompanied by a body of German mercenaries. Father- and son-in-law mediated under Cardinal Cisneros at Remesal, near Puebla de Sanabria, and at Renedo, the only result of which was an indecent family quarrel, in which Ferdinand professed to defend the interests of his daughter, who he said was imprisoned by her husband. On 27 June 1506, the Treaty of Villafáfila was signed between Ferdinand and Philip, with Philip being proclaimed King of Castile by the Cortes of Valladolid.

However, Philip died suddenly at Burgos, apparently of typhoid fever, on 25 September 1506. His wife supposedly refused to allow his body to be buried or to part from it for a while. Philip I is entombed at the Royal Chapel of Granada (Capilla Real de Granada), alongside his wife, and her parents Isabella I and Ferdinand II.

Family[edit]

Children of Philip and Joanna

Philip and Joanna of Castile had six children:

  • Eleanor (1498–1558), queen consort of Portugal and France
  • Charles (1500–1558), king of Spain, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
  • Isabella (1501–1526), queen consort of Denmark, Norway and Sweden
  • Ferdinand I (1503–1564), king of Bohemia and Hungary, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
  • Mary (1505–1558), queen consort of Hungary and Bohemia
  • Catherine (1507–1578), queen consort of Portugal

Ancestry[edit]

Titles[edit]

Coat of arms of Philip as an Archduke and Titular Duke of Burgundy
Coat of arms of Philip as King of Castile

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Spanish: Felipe el Hermoso; German: Philipp der Schöne; French: Philippe le Beau; Dutch: Filips de Schone
  2. ^ ,Constantin von Wurzbach (1861). "Habsburg, Philipp I. der Schöne von Oesterreich". Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich 7. L. C. Zamarski. p. 112. 
  3. ^ King Henry VII and Archduke Philip met for the first time outside Calais in 1500, Prince Henry was not included in the English party; and the Archduke's visit to England was not until 1506. Ref: Gairdner, Letters and Patents illustrative of the Reigns of Richard III & Henry VII, ii, p.89 et seq.; Pub. for the Master of The Rolls by The Treasury, 1878
  4. ^ marcalcide. "The marriage of Philip I of Castile". Youtube.com. Retrieved 23 August 2012. 
  5. ^ Hermann Wiesflecker, Maximilian I. und die habsburgische-spanischen Heirats- und Bündnisverträge von 1495–1496, in Mitteilungen des Instituts für Österreichische Geschichtsforschung 67 (1959)
  6. ^ Penn, Thomas (2011). Winter King: The Dawn of Tudor England. London: Allen Lane. pp. 213–226. ISBN 9781439191569. 

Sources[edit]

  • Cauchies, Jean-Marie (2003). Philippe le Beau: le dernier duc de Bourgogne. Turnhout: Brepols. 
Philip I of Castile
Born: 22 February 1478 Died: 25 September 1506
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Joanna
as sole monarch
King of Castile and Leon
1506
with Joanna
Succeeded by
Joanna
as sole monarch
Preceded by
Mary
Duke of Brabant,
Limburg, Lothier and Duke of Luxemburg
Margrave of Namur
Count of Artois, Flanders,
Charolais, Hainaut, Holland and Zeeland;
Count Palatine of Burgundy

1482–1506
Succeeded by
Charles II & III
Duke of Guelders;
Count of Zutphen

1482–1492
Succeeded by
Charles II