May 27, 1931 |
Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
University of Chicago
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
|Occupation||Author, Marketing Professor and Consultant|
Philip Kotler (born May 27, 1931 in Chicago, Illinois) is an Ukrainian American marketing author, consultant and professor; currently the S. C. Johnson Distinguished Professor of International Marketing at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. He is the author of over 40 marketing books, including Principles of Marketing, Kotler on Marketing: How to Create, Win, and Dominate Markets, and Marketing 3.0: From Products to Customers to the Human Spirit. Kotler describes strategic marketing as serving as “the link between society’s needs and its pattern of industrial response.”
Both Kotler’s parents emigrated in 1917 from Ukraine and settled in Chicago. Kotler was born in Chicago on May 27, 1931. He studied at DePaul University for two years and was accepted without a bachelor's degree into the Master's program at the University of Chicago (1953) and his PhD at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1956), both in economics. He studied under three Nobel Laureates in Economic Science: Milton Friedman, Paul Samuelson, and Robert Solow. He did a year of postdoctoral work in mathematics at Harvard University and in behavioral science at the University of Chicago.
Kotler started teaching marketing in 1962 at the Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University. Kotler moved into marketing which he believed is an essential part of economics. He saw demand as influenced not only by price but also by advertising, sales promotions, sales force, direct mail, and various institutions (wholesalers, retailers, agents, etc.) operating as distribution channels.
Kotler "holds that the organization's marketing task is to determine the needs, wants and interests of target markets and to achieve the desired results more effectively and efficiently than competitors, in a way that preserves or enhances the consumer's or society's well-being." He links the profit motive to the satisfaction of consumer wants and society’s well-being. In order to market effectively, Kotler believes that the marketing purpose of elevating consumer well-being has to be put at the heart of company strategy and be practiced by all managers.
The Financial Times in 2003 cited Kotler's three major contributions to marketing and to management. “First, he has done more than any other writer or scholar to promote the importance of marketing, transforming it from a peripheral activity, bolted on to the more "important" work of production. Second, he continued a trend started by Peter Drucker, shifting emphasis away from price and distribution to a greater focus on meeting customers' needs and on the benefits received from a product or service. Third, he has broadened the concept of marketing from mere selling to a more general process of communication and exchange, and has shown how marketing can be extended and applied to charities, political parties and many other non-commercial situations.”
Kotler argued for broadening the field of marketing to cover not only commercial operations but also the operations of non-profit organizations and government agencies. He held that marketing can be applied not only to products, services, and experiences, but also to causes, ideas, places and persons. Thus a museum needs the marketing skills of Product, Price, Place, and Promotion (the 4Ps) if it is to be successful in attracting visitors donors, staff members, and public support. Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman created the field of social marketing which applies marketing theory to influence behavior change that would benefit consumers, their peers, and society as a whole. Philip Kotler and Sidney Levy developed the idea of demarketing which organizations need to use to reduce overall or selective demand when demand is too high. Thus when water is in short supply, the government needs to persuade various water consumers to reduce water usage so that enough water will be available for essential uses.
Writings and Activities
In 1967, Kotler published Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, and Control, now in its 14th edition and the world’s most widely adopted textbook in graduate schools of business. Where previous marketing textbooks were highly descriptive, this text was the first to draw on economic science, organizational theory, psychology of behavior and choice, and analytics. It described theory and practice and drew on findings from empirical studies and cases. The Financial Times on December 9, 1996 cited Marketing Management as one of the 50 greatest business books of all times.
Kotler is the author and co-author of over 55 books and 150 published articles. His other textbooks include Principles of Marketing and Marketing: An Introduction. Kotler has also written fifty other books on such subjects as museums, performing arts, place marketing, poverty alleviation, innovation, professional services, religious institutions, healthcare, education, tourism, hospitality, environment, government marketing, and corporate social responsibility.
His published articles are presented, analyzed and commented on in the nine volume Legends in Marketing Series: Philip Kotler, edited by Professor Jagdish Sheth.
In 1975, Kotler was the first person to receive the "Leader in Marketing Thought" voted on by the academic members of the American Marketing Association. Kotler has received fourteen honorary degrees from around the world. On February 16, 2013, he was the first recipient of the William L. Wilkie “Marketing for a Better World” Award from the American Marketing Association to “honor marketers who have significantly contributed to the understanding and appreciation for marketing’s potential to improve the world.”
Also, in 2013 he was the first recipient of the Sheth Foundation Medal for Exceptional Contribution to Marketing Scholarship and Practice. The Financial Times on November 18, 2005 surveyed 1,000 executives in 25 countries on the Most Influential Business Writers/Management Gurus and Philip Kotler ranked fourth after Peter Drucker, Bill Gates, and Jack Welch. Kotler’s contributions are described in a chapter found in every book written about the “gurus” of business and management (see References below).
Kotler is also the founder of the World Marketing Summit, whose annual conferences are dedicated to finding ways to improve human conditions and the quality of life. He also co-established the world’s first Museum of Marketing (3.0) in Ubud, Bali, Indonesia. He is the first marketer to appear anywhere on a postage stamp, in this case issued by Indonesia in 2003.
Other honorary degrees have been from DePaul University, University of Zurich, Athens School of Economics, Catholic University Santo Domingo, Groupe HEC, University of Stockholm, Cracow School of Economics, Budapest School of Economic Science and Public Administration, Universidad Americana, BI Norwegian School of Management, Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest, National University of Kyiv Mohyla Academy, Nyenrode Business University, Universidad del Pacifico, Mediterranean University, University American College"
"Guru" books that contain a complete chapter on Professor Kotler's contributions:
- Stuart Crainer, The Ultimate Book of Business Gurus: 110 Thinkers Who Really Made a Difference (New York: AMACOM, 1998).
- Carol Kennedy, Guide to the Management Gurus: Shortcuts to the Ideas of Leading Management Thinkers (London: Century Business, 1998).
- Marcia Layton Turner, How to Think Like the World’s Greatest Marketing Minds (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000).
- Tom Brown, Stuart Crainer, Des Dearlove, and Jorge N. Rodrigues Business Minds (London: Financial Times/Prentice-Hall, 2002).
- Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman, “Social Marketing: An Approach to Planned Social Change,” Journal of Marketing, July 1971, Vol. 35, Issue 3, pp. 3-12.
- Philip Kotler and Sidney J. Levy, “Demarketing, Yes, Demarketing,” Harvard Business Review, November-December 1971, Vol. 49, Issue, 6, pp. 74-80.
- Philip Kotler, Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning and Control (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1967).
- Financial Times, December 9, 1996.