Philip Marlowe is a fictional character created by Raymond Chandler in a series of novels including The Big Sleep and The Long Goodbye. Marlowe first appeared under that name in The Big Sleep published in 1939. Chandler's early short stories, published in pulp magazines like Black Mask and Dime Detective, featured similar characters with names like "Carmady" and "John Dalmas". Some of those short stories were later combined and expanded into novels featuring Marlowe, a process Chandler called "cannibalizing". When the non-cannibalized stories were republished years later in the short story collection The Simple Art of Murder, Chandler changed the names of the protagonists to Philip Marlowe. His first two stories, "Blackmailers Don't Shoot" and "Smart-Aleck Kill" with a detective named Mallory were never altered in print but did join the others as Marlowe cases for the television series Philip Marlowe, Private Eye.
Philip Marlowe's character is foremost within the genre of hardboiled crime fiction that originated in the 1920s, notably in Black Mask magazine, in which Dashiell Hammett's The Continental Op and Sam Spade first appeared.
Underneath the wisecracking, hard drinking, tough private eye, Marlowe is quietly contemplative and philosophical and enjoys chess and poetry. While he is not afraid to risk physical harm, he does not dish out violence merely to settle scores. Morally upright, he is not fooled by the genre's usual femmes fatales, such as Carmen Sternwood in The Big Sleep.
Chandler's treatment of the detective novel exhibits an effort to develop the form. His first full length book, The Big Sleep, was published when Chandler was 51; his last, Playback at 70. Seven novels were produced in the last two decades of his life, with an eighth being posthumously completed by Robert B. Parker and published years later.
Explaining the origin of Marlowe's character, Chandler commented that "Marlowe just grew out of the pulps. He was no one person." When creating the character, Chandler had originally intended to call him Mallory; his stories for the Black Mask magazine featured characters that are considered precursors to Marlowe. The emergence of Marlowe coincided with Chandler's transition from writing short stories to novels.
Chandler was said to have taken the name Marlowe from Marlowe House, to which he belonged during his time at Dulwich College. Marlowe House was named for Christopher Marlowe, a hard-drinking Elizabethan writer who graduated in philosophy and worked secretly for the government.
Biographical notes 
Chandler is not consistent as to Marlowe's age. In The Big Sleep where the story occurs in 1936, he makes him 33, while in The Long Goodbye (set fourteen years later) Marlowe is 42. In a letter to D. J. Ibberson of 19 April 1951, Chandler noted among other things that Marlowe is 38 years old and was born in Santa Rosa, California. He had a couple of years at college and some experience as an investigator for an insurance company and the district attorney's office of Los Angeles County. He was fired from the D.A.'s office for insubordination (or as Marlowe put it, "talking back"). The D.A.'s chief investigator, Bernie Ohls is a friend and former colleague and a source of information for Marlowe within law enforcement.
Marlowe is slightly over 6 feet (180 cm) tall and weighs about 190 pounds (86 kg). He first lived at the Hobart Arms, on Franklin Avenue near North Kenmore Avenue (in The Big Sleep), but then moved to the Bristol Hotel, where he stayed for about ten years. By 1950 (in The Long Goodbye) he has rented a house on Yucca Avenue and continued at the same place in early 1952 in Playback, the last full-length Chandler Marlowe novel.
His office, originally on the 7th floor of an unnamed building in 1936, is at #615 on the sixth floor of the Cahuenga Building by March/April 1939 (the date of Farewell, My Lovely), which is on Hollywood Boulevard near Ivar. North Ivar Avenue is between North Cahuenga Boulevard to the west and Vine Street to the east. The office telephone number is GLenview 7537. Marlowe's office is modest and he doesn't have a secretary (unlike Sam Spade). He generally refuses to take divorce cases.
He drinks whiskey or brandy frequently and in relatively large quantities. For example, in The High Window, he gets out a bottle of Four Roses, and pours glasses for himself, for Det. Lt. Breeze and for Spangler. At other times he is drinking Old Forester, Kentucky bourbon: "I hung up and fed myself a slug of Old Forester to brace my nerves for the interview. As I was inhaling it I heard her steps tripping along the corridor." (The Little Sister) However, in Playback he orders a double gibson at a bar while tailing Betty Mayfield.
Marlowe is adept at using liquor to loosen peoples' tongues. An example is in The High Window, when Marlowe finally persuades the detective-lieutenant, whose "solid old face was lined and grey with fatigue", to take a drink and thereby loosen up and give out. "Breeze looked at me very steadily. Then he sighed. Then he picked the glass up and tasted it and sighed again and shook his head sideways with a half smile; the way a man does when you give him a drink and he needs it very badly and it is just right and the first swallow is like a peek into a cleaner, sunnier, brighter world." See also Marlowe's interrogation of Jessie Florian in Farewell My Lovely.
He makes good coffee. Eschewing the use of filters (see Farewell My Lovely), he uses a vacuum coffee maker (see The Long Goodbye, chapter 5). He takes his coffee with cream in the mornings but has it black at other times.
At the time of writing he was probably[weasel words] carrying a 9x19mm Parabellum Luger P08 pistol,[dubious ] but switched to a .380 ACP Colt Model 1908 Pocket Hammerless,[dubious ] then to a .38 Special Smith & Wesson Model 10.[dubious ] Philip Marlowe also carried a Model 1911 semi-automatic pistol chambered in .38 Super in the book The High Window.
Influences and adaptations 
- In the pilot episode of Bored to Death the main character Jonathan Ames played by Jason Schwartzman reads Raymond Chandler's Farewell My Lovely and uses the name Philip Marlowe as a pseudonym. Marlowe has appeared in short stories and novels by writers other than Chandler, such as Raymond Chandler's Philip Marlowe: A Centennial Celebration (1988).
- The central character in Dennis Potter's The Singing Detective is crime novelist Philip E. Marlow, portrayed in the original TV version by Michael Gambon and in the later film version by Robert Downey, Jr.
- Marlowe is referenced in the lyrics to Burton Cummings's 1979 song "Dream of a Child" and Mark Knopfler's homage to him in the song "Private Investigations" by Dire Straits.
- The two main characters of the film Radioactive Dreams are named Philip and Marlowe; Philip narrates it in a similar style as Chandler's novels.
- In the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "The Big Goodbye" (obviously in reference to The Big Sleep and The Long Goodbye), a computer malfunction traps Picard, Data, and Beverly in a 1940s Dixon Hill detective story holodeck program. Dixon Hill is an homage to such characters as Philip Marlowe and Sam Spade, among others.
Marlowe bibliography 
Works by Raymond Chandler 
- "Finger Man" (1934), (short story): This story originally featured an unnamed narrator, identified as "Carmady" in subsequent stories, and later renamed Marlowe for book publication.
- "Goldfish" (1936), (short story): This story originally featured Carmady, later renamed Marlowe for book publication.
- "Red Wind" (1938), (short story): This story originally featured John Dalmas, later renamed Marlowe for book publication.
- "Trouble Is My Business" (1939) (short story): This story originally featured John Dalmas, later renamed Marlowe for book publication.
- The Big Sleep (1939)
- Farewell, My Lovely (1940)
- The High Window (1942)
- The Lady in the Lake (1943)
- The Little Sister (1949)
- The Simple Art of Murder (1950) (short story collection)
- The Long Goodbye (1953)
- Playback (1958)
- Poodle Springs (left unfinished at Chandler's death in 1959; completed by Robert B. Parker, 1989)
- "The Pencil" (AKA "Marlowe Takes On the Syndicate", "Wrong Pigeon", and "Philip Marlowe's Last Case") (1959), (short story): Chandler's last completed work about Marlowe, his first Marlowe short story in more than twenty years, and the first short story originally written about Marlowe.
Authorized Works by Other Writers 
- Raymond Chandler's Philip Marlowe: a Centennial Celebration (1988, ISBN 1-59687-847-9) A collection of short stories edited by Byron Preiss. The second edition (1999, ISBN 0-671-03890-7) included two additional stories.
- Poodle Springs (publication date October 1989, ISBN 0-399-13482-4) by Robert B. Parker. An authorized completion of Chandler's unfinished last work.
- Perchance to Dream (1991, ISBN 0-399-13580-4) by Robert B. Parker. An authorized sequel to Chandler's The Big Sleep.
- The Black-Eyed Blonde (2014) by John Banville writing as "Benjamin Black" has the same title as a Marlowe short story Benjamin M. Schutz contributed to the 1988 collection, Raymond Chandler's Philip Marlowe: A Centennial Celebration.
Film adaptations 
- The Falcon Takes Over (1942) — (adaptation of Farewell My Lovely with detective "The Falcon" substituting for Marlowe) George Sanders as The Falcon.
- Time to Kill (1942) — (adaptation of The High Window with detective Michael Shayne substituting for Marlowe) Lloyd Nolan as Shayne.
- Murder, My Sweet (1944) — (adaptation of [and released in the UK as] Farewell My Lovely) Dick Powell as Marlowe.
- The Big Sleep (1946) — Humphrey Bogart as Marlowe.
- Lady in the Lake (1947) — Robert Montgomery as Marlowe.
- The Brasher Doubloon (1947) — (adaptation of [and released in the UK as] The High Window) George Montgomery as Marlowe.
- Marlowe (1969) — (adaptation of The Little Sister) James Garner as Marlowe.
- The Long Goodbye (1973) — Elliott Gould as Marlowe.
- Farewell My Lovely (1975) — Robert Mitchum as Marlowe.
- The Big Sleep (1978) — Robert Mitchum as Marlowe.
Radio and television adaptations 
- Lux Radio Theater, Murder My Sweet, adapted from the 1944 film, CBS Radio, 11 June 1945 (Dick Powell as Marlowe)
- The New Adventures Of Philip Marlowe, NBC Radio series, 17 June 1947 to 9 September 1947 (Van Heflin as Marlowe)
- Suspense, CBS radio, 10 January 1948 (cameo by series host Robert Montgomery in The Adventures of Sam Spade cross-over, "The Kandy Tooth")
- Lux Radio Theater, Lady in the Lake, adapted from the 1947 film, CBS Radio, 9 February 1948 (Robert Montgomery as Marlowe)
- Hollywood Star Time, Murder My Sweet, adapted from the 1944 film, CBS Radio, 8 June 1948 (Dick Powell as Marlowe)
- The Adventures of Philip Marlowe, CBS Radio series, 26 September 1948 to 15 September 1951 (Gerald Mohr as Marlowe)
- Climax!, The Long Goodbye, adapted from the novel, CBS Television, 7 October 1954 (Dick Powell as Marlowe)
- Philip Marlowe, ABC Television series, 6 October 1959 to 29 March 1960 (Philip Carey as Marlowe)
- The BBC Presents: Philip Marlowe, BBC Radio series, 26 September 1977 to 23 September 1988 (Ed Bishop as Marlowe)
- Philip Marlowe, Private Eye, HBO/London Weekend Television Television series, 16 April 1983 to 18 May 1983, 27 April 1986 to 3 June 1986) (Powers Boothe as Marlowe)
- Fallen Angels, "Red Wind", adapted from the short story, Showtime Television, 26 November 1995 (Danny Glover as Marlowe)
- Poodle Springs, adapted from the novel (a fragment completed by Robert B. Parker), HBO Television movie, 25 July 1998 (James Caan as Marlowe)
- In 2011 the BBC started a series of radio adaptations of all the Philip Marlowe novels under the heading Classic Chandler. Toby Stephens played Philip Marlowe throughout. The series started on 5 February 2011 on BBC Radio 4 with a 90 minute adaptation of The Big Sleep and continued with The Lady in the Lake (12 February 2011), Farewell My Lovely (19 February 2011) and a 60-minute version of Playback (26 February 2011). The series continued later that year with 90-minute adaptations The Long Goodbye (1 October 2011). The High Window (8 October 2011), The Little Sister (15 October 2011) and a 60-minute version of Poodle Springs (22 October 2011).
Videogame adaptations 
- Philip Marlowe: Private Eye, Byron Preiss (developer), Simon & Schuster (publisher), 1 January 1997
See also 
- Crime fiction for an overview
- Free OTR: The Adventures of Philip Marlowe (90 episodes)
- OTR Network Library: The Adventures of Philip Marlowe (63 episodes)