Philip de Montmorency, Count of Horn

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A portrait of Horn
Count of Horn

Philip de Montmorency (died 5 June 1568, Brussels), also known as Count of Horn or Hoorne or Hoorn, was a victim of the Inquisition in the Spanish Netherlands.

Biography[edit]

De Montmorency was born, between 1518 and 1526, to Jozef van Montmorency, Count of Nevele and Anna van Egmont. His father died in 1530 in Italy, and his mother remarried Johan II, Count of Horn, one of the wealthiest nobles of the Netherlands, who, in 1540, left the County of Horne to his wife's children on condition they assume his name. A page and later chamberlain at the court of Charles V, de Montmorency married Walburgis of Neuenahr in 1546. He became stadtholder of Guelders in 1555, an Admiral of Flanders, and a knight of the Golden Fleece in 1556.[citation needed]

In 1559 he commanded the stately fleet which conveyed Philip II from the Netherlands to Spain, and he remained at the Spanish court until 1563. On his return he placed himself with the Prince of Orange and Count of Egmont at the head of the party which opposed the policy of Cardinal Granvelle and ultimately forced his resignation. When Granvelle retired, the three nobles continued to resist the introduction of the Spanish Inquisition and of Spanish rule in the Netherlands. Although Philip appeared to give way, he had made up his mind to punish the opponents of his policy. The regent, Margaret, duchess of Parma, was replaced by the duke of Alva, who entered the Netherlands at the head of a veteran army.[citation needed]

Orange fled from the country, but Egmont and Horn, despite his warning, decided to remain and face the storm. They were both seized, tried and condemned as traitors. Ceaseless but vain efforts were made to obtain a fair trial for Horn, and appeals for clemency on his behalf were made by potentates in all parts of the continent. Egmont and Horn were executed by decapitation on 5 June 1568 at the Grand Place before the town hall in Brussels.[citation needed]

Legacy[edit]

Statue of Egmont and Hoorne, Petit Sablon Square, Brussels.

Nowadays, a statue erected on the Petit Sablon Square in Brussels commemorates the Counts of Egmont and Horn (Hoorn, Hoorne), in historical overview usually mentioned together as Egmond en Hoorne and hailed as the first leaders of the Dutch revolt, as the predecessors of William of Orange, who grew to importance and obtained the leadership after their execution, and who was assassinated in 1584 in Delft, having succeeded in liberating parts of The Netherlands in the early years of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648).[citation needed]

Van Egmont ("Egmond") and De Montmorency ("Horn" or "Hoorn"), both remained faithful Roman Catholics and are commemorated in Belgium, with its traditional Catholic majority. William of Orange was brought up as a Lutheran, was a proponent of freedom of religion.

References[edit]