Philip of Montfort, Lord of Tyre

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Philip of Montfort, (d. August 17, 1270,[1] Tyre) was Lord of La Ferté-Alais and Castres-en-Albigeois 1228–1270, Lord of Tyre 1246–1270, and Lord of Toron aft. 1240–1270. He was the son of Guy of Montfort and Helvis of Ibelin (daughter of Balian of Ibelin).

At his father's death at the siege of Vareilles in the Albigensian Crusade in 1228, he succeeded to his French seigneuries. His first wife was Eleonore de Courtenay (d. bef. 1230), daughter of Peter II of Courtenay. Philip joined the party of his uncle, John of Ibelin, against the representatives of Frederick II. In 1244, he was created Constable of Jerusalem, but was subordinate to Walter IV of Brienne at the Battle of La Forbie. Philip was one of the few Christian knights to escape the disaster there. In 1246, Henry I of Cyprus, then Regent of Jerusalem, created him Lord of Tyre as a reward for his services to the baronial party. While the legality of this grant was somewhat dubious, it was recognized by Hugh I c. 1269; but Hugh reserved the right to buy back the fief.

Philip was married a second time, after 1240, to Maria of Antioch-Armenia, the elder daughter of Raymond-Roupen of Antioch and hence Lady of Toron and pretender of Armenia.

He joined the Seventh Crusade, and was employed as the ambassador of Louis IX in negotiations for a truce and retreat from Damietta. In 1256, he expelled the Venetians from Tyre, an action which helped to precipitate the War of St. Sabas. During that conflict, he attempted to relieve the Genoese in Acre in 1258, but was repulsed, which helped decide the struggle for the Venetians. In 1266, he lost Toron to the Sultan Baibars; but even in Philip's old age, Baibars feared both his energetic leadership and the possible success of his appeals to Europe for aid. According to the anonymous chronicler known the Templar of Tyre, the Sultan called upon the Hashshashin, one of whom (feigning a desire to convert to Christianity) stabbed Philip as he prayed in his chapel and then fell upon his son John. Mortally wounded, Philip cried out for aid; guards immediately entered and dispatched the assassin. Seeing his son without serious injury, Philip threw up his arms and died.[2]

He was succeeded by his son Philip in his French possessions, and by his son John in Outremer.

Children[edit]

From his first marriage to Eleonore de Courtenay:

From his second marriage to Maria of Antioch-Armenia:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hill, George (2010). A History of Cyprus, Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 166. ISBN 9781108020633. 
  2. ^ Gestes des Chiprois, Part III, pp. 139 ff., ed. Gaston Raynaud, Genève, 1887.