Philippine Bar Examination

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The Philippine Bar Examination is the professional licensure examination for lawyers in the Philippines.

It is the only professional licensure exam in the country that is not supervised by the Professional Regulation Commission. The exam is exclusively administered by the Supreme Court of the Philippines through the Supreme Court Bar Examination Committee.

Brief history[edit]

The first Philippine Bar Exams was given in 1903 but the results were released in 1905. Jose I. Quintos obtained the highest rating of 96.33%, Sergio Osmena, Sr. was second with 95.66%, F. Salas was third with 94.5% and Manuel L.Quezon fourth with 87.83%. The first bar exam was held in 1903, with 13 examinees, while the 2008 bar examination is the 107th (given per Article 8, Section 5, 1987 Constitution). The 2001 bar exam had the highest number of passers—1,266 out of 3,849 examinees, or 32.89%, while 2006 had the highest examinees -.6,187. However, the Supreme Court of the Philippines' Office of the Bar Confidant announced that (a new and official record of) 6,533 law graduates will take the 2008 Bar examinations.[1]

The most notable was the 1999 bar examinations which recorded the lowest passing rate of 16.59% or with a total number of 660 successful examinees. Also, the 2003 bar exam was marred by controversy when the Court ordered a retake of the Mercantile law due to questionnaire leakage.[2] In 2005, the High Tribunal implemented the "five-strike" rule, which disqualifies five-time flunkers from taking future bar exams.[3]

Admission requirements[edit]

A bar candidate must meet the following academic qualifications:

  • Holder of a professional degree in law from a recognized law school in the Philippines[4]
  • Holder of a bachelor's degree with academic credits in certain required subjects from a recognized college or university in the Philippines or abroad.[5]

He or she should also meet certain non-academic requisites:[6]

  • A Filipino citizen.
  • At least twenty-one (21) years of age.
  • A resident of the Philippines.
  • Satisfactory evidence of good moral character (usually a certificate from the dean of law school or an immediate superior at work).
  • No charges involving moral turpitude have been filed against the candidate or are pending in any court in the Philippines.

In March 2010 the Philippine Supreme Court Issued Bar Matter 1153 amending provisions in sec 5 and 6 of rule 138 of the rules of court now allowing Filipino foreign law school graduates to take the bar exam provided that they comply with the following: a. completion of all courses leading to a degree of Bachelor of laws or its equivalent b. recognition or accreditation of the law school by proper authority c. completion of all fourth year subjects in a program of a law school duly accredited by the Philippine Government d. present proof of completing a separate bachelors degree

Committee of Bar Examiners[edit]

The Supreme Court appoints memberships in the Committee of Bar Examiners, the official task force for formulating bar exam questions, instituting policy directives, executing procedures, grading bar examination papers, and releasing the results of the annual bar examination.[7]

The committee is chaired by an incumbent Justice of the Supreme Court, who is designated by the Supreme Court to serve for a term of one year. The members of the committee includes eight (8) members of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines, who also hold office for a term of one year.[8] While the Justice who shall act as Chairman is immediately known, committee members must exert every effort to conceal their identities until the oath-taking of the successful bar examinees, approximately six months after the bar exam.[9]

Bar review programs[edit]

Candidates who meet all the admission requirements usually enroll in special review classes after graduating from law school. These programs are held from April to September in law schools, colleges, universities, and review centers.

Program schedule, content, and delivery differs from one review program to another. Lecturers in these programs are called bar reviewers. They are usually full-time professors and part-time professorial lecturers in law schools and universities. Most review programs invite incumbent and retired justices and high ranking public officials both as a marketing tool and as a program innovation.[10]

Venue and itinerary[edit]

In recent years, the examinations were held during the four Sundays of September of every year at the campus of De La Salle University-Manila along Taft Avenue, Manila. From 2011 onward, the exams are now held at the University of Santo Tomas' campus along España Boulevard, in Sampaloc, Manila, previously on the four Sundays of November, then reverted to October from 2012.

On February 8, 2011, the Supreme Court resolved to approve changes to the Rules of Court, thereby altering the schedule for the examinations.[11] The schedule is now as follows:

  • First Sunday:
    • Political Law, (morning)
    • Labor Law (afternoon)
  • Second Sunday:
    • Civil Law (morning)
    • Taxation Law (afternoon)
  • Third Sunday:
  • Fourth Sunday:
    • Remedial Law (morning)
    • Legal and Judicial Ethics (afternoon)


The examination covers the following topics, popularly known as the bar subjects:[12]

  • Political and Public International Law
    • Constitutional Law
    • Political Law
    • Administrative Law (only the basic doctrines, excluding implementing rules and regulations of government agencies)
    • Law on Public Officers
    • Public Corporations
    • Suffrage
    • Public International Law
  • Labor and Social Legislation
    • Labor Law (Labor Code of the Philippines, excluding the implementing rules and regulations)
    • Social Legislation
      • Social Security Law
      • Revised Government Service Insurance Act of 1977 (including Employees Compensation Act of 1977)
      • Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law
  • Civil Law
    • Civil Code of the Philippines (excluding the Code of Muslim Personal Laws, Water Code, Rental Law, Law on Sale of Subdivision of Lots and Condominiums)
    • Family Code of the Philippines (including the Child and Youth Welfare Code)
    • Property Registration Decree (excluding the Public Land Law)
    • Conflict of Laws (Private International Law)
  • Taxation
    • General principles of Taxation
    • Republic Act No. 1125, creating the Court of Tax Appeals
    • National Internal Revenue Code (including the Expanded Value Added Tax or EVAT)
    • Tariff and Customs Code (excluding Arrastre and Classification of Commodities)
  • Mercantile Law
    • Negotiable Instruments Law and Other Allied Laws
      • Negotiable Instruments Law (with the Uniform Currency Act)
      • Merchants and Commercial Transactions (including Articles 1 to 63 of the Code of Commerce, Retail Trade Law, Bulk Sales Law)
      • Letters of Credit under the Code of Commerce
    • Insurance Code
    • Transportation Laws
      • Common Carriers (Articles 1732 to 1766 of the New Civil Code)
      • Commercial Contracts for Transportation Over Land (Articles 349 to 379 of the Code of Commerce)
      • Maritime Commerce
      • Public Service Act
    • Corporation Law
      • Corporation Code
      • Securities Act
      • Banking Laws
        • Laws on Secrecy of Bank Deposits
        • Deposit Insurance Corporation
        • Trust Receipts Law (excluding the General Banking Act)
      • Other Special Laws
        • Chattel Mortgage Law
        • Warehouse Receipts Law
        • Laws on Intellectual Creations
          • Copyright Law
          • Patent Law
          • Trademark Law
        • Insolvency Law
        • Truth in Lending Act
  • Criminal Law
    • Revised Penal Code (Books I & II excluding penalties for specific felonies)
    • Indeterminate Sentence Law
    • Probation Law
    • Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act
    • Anti-Fencing Law
    • Bouncing Checks Law
    • Dangerous Drugs Act of 1972
    • Heinous Crimes Law (excluding penalties)
  • Remedial Law
    • Revised Rules of Court
    • 1991 Revised Rule on Summary Procedure
    • Local Government Code on Conciliation Procedures (Chapter VII)
    • Judiciary Reorganization Act of 1980 (excluding purely administrative provisions, Military Justice Law, Judiciary Act of 1948, and the Law Reorganizing the Court of Agrarian Relations)
  • Legal Ethics and Practical Exercises
    • Legal Ethics
    • Judicial Ethics
    • Code of Professional Responsibility
    • Grievance Procedures (Rules 139-B, Revised Rules of Court)
    • Forms

Grading system[edit]

The eight bar subjects are separately graded. Each subject contributes to the general average in the following proportion:[13]

Subject Weight'
Civil Law 15%
Labor Law and Social Legislation 10%
Mercantile Law 15%
Criminal Law 10%
Political and International Law 15%
Taxation 10%
Remedial Law 20%
Legal Ethics and Practical Exercises 5%

The passing average fixed by law is 75%, with no grade falling below 50% in any bar subject.[14]

Passing average vs. Passing rate[edit]

The passing average is the minimum grade in the exam required to be admitted to the practice of law. The passing rate is the proportion of total number of bar passers in relation to the total number of bar examinees. It is usually computed on two levels—the national level (national bar passing rate), and the law school level (law school passing rate).

In the past, passing averages were considerably lower to admit more new lawyers (i.e. 69% in 1947, 69.45% in 1946, 70% in 1948). Since 1982, the passing average has been fixed at 75%. This has led to a dramatic decrease in the national passing rate of bar examinees, from an all-time high of 75.17% in 1954 to an all-time low of 16.59% in 1999 (all-time low should have been the single digit 5% national passing rate for the 2007 bar examination if the Supreme Court did not lower the passing average to 70% and lowered the disqualification rate in 3 subjects). In recent years, the annual national bar passing rate ranges from 20% to 30%.[15]

Passing Percentage (1978-2012)[edit]

Year Passing Percentage
2012 17.76% (949 out of 5,343)
2011 31.95% (1,913 out of 5,987)
2010 20.26% (982 out of 4,847)
2009 24.58% (1,451 out of 5,903)
2008 20.58% (1,310 out of 6,364)
2007 22.91% (1,289 out of 5,626)
2006 30.60% (1,893 out of 6,187)
2005 27.22% (1,526 out of 5,607)
2004 31.61% (1,659 out of 5,249)
2003 20.71% (1,108 out of 5,349)
2002 19.68% (917 out of 4,659)
2001 32.89% (1,266 out of 3,849)
2000 20.84% (979 out of 4,698)
1999 16.59% (660 out of 3,978)
1998 39.63%
1997 18.11% (710 out of 3,921)
1996 31.21% (1,217 out of 3,900)
1995 30.90% (987 out of 3,194)
1994 30.87%
1993 21.65%
1992 17.25%
1991 17.81% (569 out of 3,194)
1990 27.94% (866 out of 3,100)
1989 21.22% (639 out of 3,012)
1988 24.26% (689 out of 2,840)
1987 16.95% (480 out of 2,832)
1986 18.88% (491 out of 2,600)
1985 25.78% (701 out of 2,719)
1984 21.80% (563 out of 2,582)
1983 21.30% (523 out of 2,455)
1982 20.50% (433 out of 2,112)
1981 43.71% (841 out of 1,924)
1980 33.61% (605 out of 1,800)
1979 49.51% (903 out of 1,824)
1978 56.93% (1,076 out of 1,890)

Law school passing rates[edit]

The Legal Education Board's ranking for top ten law schools in the Philippines is based on the passing rate from 2001 to 2010:[16]

Excellence in Legal Education (top five)

  1. Ateneo de Manila University Law School (89.03)
  2. San Beda College of Law (85.74)
  3. University of the Philippines College of Law (79.84)
  4. Ateneo de Davao College of Law (64.99)
  5. University of San Carlos College of Law (61.23)

Outstanding Law Schools (rest of the top ten)

  1. University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law (60.22)
  2. Arellano University Law Foundation (42.90)
  3. Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan College of Law (38.90)
  4. Far Eastern University Institute of Law (33.14)
  5. University of San Agustin College of Law (31.63)

Role of the Supreme Court, Criticisms[edit]

In 2007, only 5% (of the 5,626 who took the 2007 tests, or less than 300) got the passing grade of 75%. Thus, the Supreme Court adjusted the standard to 70% and the disqualification rate in 3 subjects (civil, labor and criminal law) from 50 to 45%. Accordingly, 1,289 or 22.91%, "passed." This passing grade reduction is highly unusual, since it last happened in the 1981 exam when the passing grade was lowered to 72.5%. Prior to 1982, the passing mark jumped unpredictably from year to year: 69.45 percent in 1946; 69 in 1947; 70 in 1948, 1963, 1972 and 1974; 71 in 1961; 71.5 in 1953, 1964 and 1965; 72 in 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960 and 1967; 72.5 in 1954, 1962 and 1981; 73 in 1950, 1956, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1975, 1978 and 1980; 73.5 in 1955 and 1979; 74 in 1949, 1951, 1952, 1966, 1971, 1973 and 1977; and 74.5 in 1976. In 1954, the Court lowered the passing grade to 72.5%, even if the passing percentage was already at its highest at 75.17%. In 1999, moves to lower the passing grade to 74% failed, after Justice Fidel Purisima, bar committee chairman failed to disclose that his nephew took the examination. He was censured and his honoraria was reduced to half.[17]

Bar topnotchers[edit]

Bar topnotchers are bar examinees who garnered the highest bar exam grades in a particular year. Every year, the Supreme Court releases the bar top ten list. The list contains the names of bar examinees who obtained the ten highest grades. It is possible for more than ten examinees to place in the top ten because numerical ties in the computation of grades usually occur.[18]

From 1913 to 2013, schools which have produced bar topnotchers (1st placers) are as follows:[18]

Two bar examinees topped the bar exams without officially graduating from any Philippine law school:[18]

  • Jose W. Diokno - former Senator of the Philippines; 1st placer, 1945 bar exams. Mr. Diokno, who tied for Number One with Mr. Jovito Salonga in the 1945 Bar Exams, would have graduated from the University of Santo Tomas had not World War II supervened. Mr. Diokno's success in the bar exams is further underscored by the fact that he was also under-age[19] and that he also placed number 1 in the 1940 CPA Board exams which he took while in law school, after graduating summa cum laude from then De La Salle College at the age of 17. This double number 1 feat may never be paralleled. The closest may have been Cesar L. Villanueva (from the Ateneo Law School) who placed second in the 1981 Bar Exams and sixth place in the 1982 CPA Board Exams.
  • Carolina C. Griño-Aquino - former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court; 1st placer, 1950 bar exams. Ms. Aquino (who later became the wife of Mr. Ramon Aquino, 6th placer in 1939 Bar Exams) was a special student of the UP College of Law, where she finished her last two years of law school having taken her first two years of law school at the Colegio de San Agustin in Iloilo. Ms. Aquino was advised to take her last two years of law school in UP by Colegio de San Agustin Law Dean Felipe Ysmael. Coincidentally, Mr. Ysmael (a UP Law graduate himself) placed number 1 in the 1917 Bar Exams. Since Ms. Aquino only took her last two years of law at UP, she can't be certified as an official UP law graduate.[19] Both spouses Aquino (in addition to being topnotchers) also served as Justices of the Supreme Court.[20]

In the past, non-law school graduates were allowed to take the bar. However, the Revised Rules of Court and Supreme Court Circulars allow Filipino graduates of Philippine law schools (and subject to certain conditions, Filipino graduates of foreign law schools) to take the bar, necessarily excluding non-law graduates and foreigners who have law degrees from taking part in the exercise.[4]

While not a guarantee for topping the bar, academic excellence in law school is a good indicator of an examinee's fortune in the bar exams. Ateneo Law School's only summa cum laude graduate, Claudio Teehankee, placed number one in the 1940 Bar Exams.[18] It is worth noting that Teehankee's son, Manuel Antonio, followed in his footsteps by graduating at the top of his Ateneo Law School class (albeit, not as summa cum laude) and placing first in the 1983 bar exams. Claudio's nephew, Enrique (a cum laude graduate from the UP College of Law), also placed number one in the 1976 bar exams. Claudio eventually became Supreme Court Chief Justice, Manuel was formerly Department of Justice Undersecretary and Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the World Trade Organization in Geneva, Switzerland while Enrique is a successful private practitioner.

This father-son-nephew feat has yet to (and, perhaps, may never) be equalled in the annals of Philippine Bar. For siblings, the closest is when Manuel B. Zamora, Jr. placed third in the 1961 Bar Exams and younger brother Ronaldo placed first in the 1969 Bar Exams.

The UST Faculty of Civil Law's sole summa cum laude graduate, Roberto B. Concepcion, placed first in the 1924 Bar Exams.[18] He later served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.

The San Beda College of Law's sole magna cum laude graduate, Florenz Regalado,[21] ranked 1st in the 1954 Bar exams with a mark of 96.70%. The record is the highest average in the Philippine Bar Examinations, to date. Regalado later served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court.

The UP College of Law (which has yet to produce a summa cum laude graduate) had five of its seventeen magna cum laude graduates (the College of Law first conferred the honor to Rafael Dinglasan in 1925 and, to date, last conferred the same honor to Dionne Marie Sanchez in 2007) place number one in their respective bar exams: Rafael Dinglasan in 1925, Lorenzo Sumulong in 1929, Deogracias Eufemio in 1962, Roberto San Jose in 1966 and Ronaldo Zamora in 1969.[18] Dinglasan became a Judge of the Court of First Instance of Manila, Sumulong became Senator of the Republic and a renowned statesman, Eufemio and San Jose established their respective successful private law practices while Zamora became Executive Secretary to then President Joseph Estrada and is currently the Minority Leader in the House of Representatives.

Highest and lowest topnotcher grades[edit]

A standard was created in 1940, when Claudio Teehankee (future Supreme Court Chief Justice), from the Ateneo Law School, got a grade of 94.35% when he topped the examinations. This record was obliterated four years later in 1944 when Jovito Salonga and Jose W. Diokno tied with the highest score of 95.3%. This was the first time that first place ended in a tie. When they took the 1944 Bar Exams, Atty. Salonga was an undergraduate at the UP College of Law while Atty. Diokno (future Senator) was an undergraduate of the University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law. After passing the bar, Atty. Salonga (future Senate President) went back to UP to complete his bacholer's degree in law, earning it in 1946. The only other instance of a tie at first place of the bar exams was when Edwin Enrile (salutatorian of his Ateneo Law School class) and Florin Hilbay (an honor student of the UP College of Law) both garnered the same score in 1999. Atty. Enrile served as Deputy Executive Secretary to President Gloria Arroyo and as a Professorial Lecturer at the Ateneo Law School while Atty. Hilbay is a Professor of Law at the UP College of Law.[19]

After another four years, the "bar" was raised a few notches when Manuel G. Montecillo of the Far Eastern University Institute of Law got a grade of 95.50% when he bested all the bar examinees of 1948. The following year, another record was set when Anacleto C. Mañgaser, an alumnus of the Philippine Law School, got a grade of 95.85% when he topped the 1949 bar exams.

Ferdinand Marcos (future President of the Philippines) of the UP College of Law scored 98.8% when he topped the 1939 Philippine Bar Examinations. But this result is disputed as the Supreme Court officially recognizes Florenz D. Regalado's (San Beda College) score of 96.7% in the 1954 Bar Examinations as the highest score ever to be made in the Philippine Bar. Marcos' official bar score is at 92.35%. [22]

The lowest grade was obtained by Ateneo Law School's Mercedita L. Ona, 83.55%, 2008, which erased the prior record of 84.10%, obtained by Adolfo Brillantes of Escuela de Derecho de Manila (now Manila Law College Foundation) in 1920.[18][23] Atty. Ona was the just the latest of women first placers. In 1930, Tecla San Andres (an alumna of the UP College of Law and future Senator) broke the proverbial "glass ceiling" when she became the first woman to top the bar with a grade of 89.4%. Ameurfina A. Melencio (also an alumna of the UP College of Law and who later became a Justice of the Supreme Court) has the highest grade of all female bar topnotchers in recorded history, when she obtained a 93.85% rating in 1947.

Below is a listing of all 100 first-placers (from 1913 to 2012) ranked from highest to lowest in terms of rating obtained. It should be noted however that bar ratings are not exactly comparable from year-to-year as the difficulty of the exams varies through the years.

Rank Year Name School Rating
1st 1954 Florenz D. Regalado San Beda College 96.700 (Official)[24]
2nd 1949 Anacleto C. Mañgaser Philippine Law School 95.850
3rd 1948 Manuel G. Montecillo Far Eastern University 95.500
4th (tie) 1944 Jose W. Diokno Special (University of Santo Tomas) 95.300
4th (tie) 1944 Jovito R. Salonga University of the Philippines 95.300
6th 1940 Claudio Teehankee Ateneo de Manila University 94.350
7th 1952 Pedro Samson C. Animas University of the Philippines 94.250
8th 1953 Leonardo A. Amores University of Manila 94.050
9th 1947 Ameurfina A. Melencio-Herrera University of the Philippines 93.850
10th 2001 Rodolfo Ma. A. Ponferrada University of the Philippines 93.800
11th (tie) 1914 Manuel G. Goyena University of the Philippines 93.000
11th (tie) 1916 Paulino Gullas University of the Philippines 93.000
11th (tie) 1932 Hermenegildo Atienza University of the Philippines 93.000
14th 2002 Arlene M. Maneja University of Santo Tomas 92.900
15th 1984 Richard M. Chiu Ateneo de Manila University 92.850
16th 1937 Cecilia Muñoz-Palma University of the Philippines 92.600
17th 1929 Lorenzo S. Sumulong University of the Philippines 92.500
18th 1978 Cosme D. Rosell University of the Philippines 92.475
19th 1933 Lope C. Quimbo University of Manila 92.450
20th 1971 Henry R. Villarica University of the Philippines 92.400
21st (tie) 1951 Vicente R. Acsay University of Manila 92.250
22nd (tie) Aug-1946 Gregoria T. Cruz University of the Philippines 92.250
23rd 1950 Carolina C. Griño Special (Colegio de San Agustin,University of the Philippines) 92.050
24th (tie) 1913 Manuel A. Roxas University of the Philippines 92.000
24th (tie) 1917 Felipe Ysmael University of the Philippines 92.000
25th (tie) 1977 Virgilio B. Gesmundo Ateneo de Manila University 91.800
25th (tie) 1998 Janet B. Abuel Baguio Colleges Foundation 91.800
27th (tie) 1934 Miguel Aragon University of the Philippines 91.700
27th (tie) 1960 Ismael Andres Manuel L. Quezon University 91.700
27th (tie) Nov-1946 Pedro L. Yap University of the Philippines 91.700
31st 1974 Arturo D. Brion Ateneo de Manila University 91.650
32nd (tie) 1979 Gregorio M. Batiller, Jr. Ateneo de Manila University 91.400
32nd (tie) 1983 Manuel Antonio J. Teehankee Ateneo de Manila University 91.400
34th 1938 Emmanuel N. Pelaez University of Manila 91.300
35th 1995 Leonor Y. Dicdican University of the Philippines 91.200
36th 1925 Rafael Dinglasan University of the Philippines 91.100
37th (tie) 1961 Avelino V. Cruz San Beda College 90.950
37th (tie) 1981 Irene Ragodon-Guevarra Ateneo de Manila University 90.950
37th (tie) 1982 Ray C. Espinosa Ateneo de Manila University 90.950
40th 1923 Roque V. Desquitado University of the Philippines 90.900
41st (tie) 1962 Deogracias G. Eufemio University of the Philippines 90.800
41st (tie) 1976 Enrique Y. Teehankee University of the Philippines 90.800
43rd (tie) 1966 Roberto V. San Jose University of the Philippines 90.600
44th (tie) 1996 Patricia Ann T. Prodigalidad University of the Philippines 90.600
44th (tie) 2000 Eliseo M. Zuñiga, Jr. University of the Philippines 90.600
47th 1955 Tomas P. Matic, Jr. Far Eastern University 90.550
48th (tie) 1928 Filomeno B. Pascual Philippine Law School 90.300
48th (tie) 1973 Vicente R. Solis Ateneo de Manila University 90.300
50th (tie) 1941 Emmet P.D. Shea University of the Philippines 90.200
50th (tie) 1956 Francisco C. Catral San Beda College 90.200
52nd 1997 Ma. Cecilia H. Fernandez University of the Philippines 90.025
53rd 1915 Francisco Villanueva, Jr. University of the Philippines 90.000
54th 1991 Joseph P. San Pedro Ateneo de Manila University 89.950
55th (tie) 1936 Diosdado P. Macapagal University of Santo Tomas 89.850
55th (tie) 1990 Aquilino L. Pimentel III University of the Philippines 89.850
57th 1965 Victor S. dela Serna San Beda College 89.800
58th 1980 Rafael R. Lagos University of the Philippines 89.750
59th 1934 Marciano P. Catral Philippine Law School 89.700
60th 1967 Rodolfo D. Robles San Beda College 89.600
61st (tie) 1930 Tecla San Andres University of the Philippines 89.400
61st (tie) 1931 Jose Leuterio University of the Philippines 89.400
61st (tie) 1985 Janette Susan L. Peña University of the Philippines 89.400
64th 1958 Manuel G. Abello University of the Philippines 89.250
65th (tie) 1959 Agustin O. Benitez Far Eastern University 89.200
65th (tie) 1994 Francisco Noel R. Fernandez University of the Philippines 89.200
67th 1957 Gregorio R. Castillo University of the Philippines 89.150
68th (tie) 1921 Pablo Payawal University of the Philippines 89.100
68th (tie) 1922 Amado L. Velilla University of the Philippines 89.100
68th (tie) 1924 Roberto B. Concepcion University of Santo Tomas 89.100
71st 2010 Cesareo Antonio S. Singzon, Jr. Ateneo de Manila University 89.000
72nd 1986 Laurence L. Go Ateneo de Manila University 88.600
73rd 1987 Mario P. Victoriano Ateneo de Manila University 88.550
74th 2003 Aeneas Eli S. Diaz Ateneo de Manila University 88.530
75th (tie) 1999 Edwin R. Enrile Ateneo de Manila University 88.500
75th (tie) 1999 Florin T. Hilbay University of the Philippines 88.500
77th 1964 Jesus P. Castelo San Beda College 88.400
78th 1993 Anna Leah Fidelis T. Castañeda Ateneo de Manila University 88.325
79th 1988 Maria Yvette O. Navarro University of the Philippines 88.120
80th 1926 Eugeniano Perez Philippine Law School 88.100
81st 1927 Cesar Kintanar University of the Philippines 87.700
82nd 2006 Noel Neil Q. Malimban University of the Cordilleras 87.600
83rd 1970 Romulo D. San Juan Far Eastern University[25] 87.500
84th (tie) 1968 Oscar B. Glovasa Divine World College of Tagbilaran 87.450
84th (tie) 2004 January A. Sanchez University of the Philippines 87.450
86th 1969 Ronaldo B. Zamora University of the Philippines 87.300
87th 2005 Joan de Venecia University of the Philippines 87.200
88th 1972 Januario B. Soller, Jr. Ateneo de Manila University 87.130
89th (tie) 1918 Alejo Labrador University of the Philippines 87.000
89th (tie) 1919 Gregorio Anonas Philippine Law School 87.000
89th (tie) 1992 Jayme A. Sy Jr. Ateneo de Manila University 87.000
92nd 1975 Nicanor B. Padilla, Jr. University of the East 86.700
93rd 1963 Cornelio C. Gison Ateneo de Manila University 86.350
94th 1989 Gilberto C. Teodoro, Jr. University of the Philippines 86.185
95th 2013 Nielson G. Pangan University of the Philippines 85.800
96th 2008 Judy A. Lardizabal San Sebastian College 85.700
97th 2012 Ignatius Michael D. Ingles Ateneo de Manila University 85.640
98th 2011 Raoul Angelo D. Atadero Ateneo de Manila University 85.536
99th 2009 Reinier Paul R. Yebra San Beda College 84.800
100th 1920 Adolfo Brillantes Escuela de Derecho 84.100

Highest scores in specific bar subjects[edit]

While no bar examinee has ever reached a 100% general average, several bar examinees have garnered perfect and near-perfect grades in specific bar subjects.

In 1930, Tecla San Andres-Ziga (future Senator) of the University of the Philippines got a grade of 99% in Remedial Law.[26] She also placed number one in the bar exams of the same year.

In 1949, Anacleto C. Mañgaser of the Philippine Law School earned 100% in Mercantile Law, and placed 1st in the bar exams of that year. His average of 95.85% broke all prior records before it was bested by Florenz Regalado in 1954.[18] Mañgaser's bar rating remains the second highest of all time.

In 1953, Juan Ponce Enrile (future Defense Minister and Senate President) of the University of the Philippines College of Law, where he graduated salutatorian and cum laude, earned 100% in Mercantile Law[27] and placed 11th in the bar exams of that year.[27]

In 1955, Raul Gonzales (future Congressman, Secretary of Justice and Chief Presidential Legal Counsel) of the University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law earned 99% in Remedial Law[citation needed] and 95% in International Law.[citation needed] However, he did not place in the top ten.[18]

In 1973, Renato Franciso (Executive Judge of RTC Malolos, Bulacan) of the Ateneo de Manila Law School obtained a perfect score of 100% in Criminal Law.[28]

In 1997, Maria Celia H. Fernandez of the University of the Philippines College of Law, where she graduated salutatorian and cum laude, earned 100% in Legal Ethics[citation needed] and emerged as the year's bar topnotcher.[18]

In 2001, Rodolfo Ma. A. Ponferrada, that year's valedictorian of the University of the Philippines College of Law, obtained a perfect score of 100% in Remedial Law[citation needed], the highest weighted of the bar subjects. The difference (3.75%) between his final bar examination score (93.80%) and that of the second-placer, Jesus Paolo U. Protacio (90.05%), that year's valedictorian of the Ateneo de Manila Law School and who got a perfect score of 100% in Criminal Law,[citation needed] is the highest of all time. Notably, that year's valedictorian of the San Beda College of Law, Adonis V. Gabriel, obtained a perfect score of 100% in Political Law[citation needed] and placed 8th (88.25%).[18][29] The 3.75% difference between No. 1 and No. 2 eclipsed the previous highest difference of 2.10% registered in 1966 when Roberto V. San Jose (valedictorian of the UP College of Law) garnered a grade of 90.6% versus the 88.5% of the tied second placers, Ruben F. Balane (salutatorian of the UP College of Law) and Pablo S. Trillana III (valedictorian of the San Beda College of Law).

In 2005, Gladys V. Gervacio of the University of Perpetual Help-Rizal earned a perfect 100% in two bar subjects—Legal Ethics[citation needed] and Labor Law[citation needed]. She placed 6th in the bar exams of that year. In 2011, she passed the California State Bar examinations.[18]

Increasing difficulty[edit]

The difficulty of the recent bar examinations, compared to exams of the past, can be attributed to the following factors:[15]

  • The growing volume of Philippine case and statutory laws is unprecedented. Laws, jurisprudence, and legal doctrines of the past constitute only a small fraction of contemporary Philippine legal materials, which are increasing on a daily basis.[30]
  • The 75% passing average with no grade lower than 50% in any subject is already fixed by law. Actual candidates who scored 74.99% in the general average were not admitted to the practice of law, unless they retake the bar exams.[15]
  • The Three-Failure Rule is now in place. Candidates who have failed the bar exams for three times are not permitted to take another bar exam until they re-enroll and pass regular fourth-year review classes and attend a pre-bar review course in an approved law school.[31]
  • The Five-Strike Rule is implemented since 2005. The rule limits to five the number of times a candidate may take the Bar exams. The rule disqualifies a candidate after failing in three examinations. However, he is permitted to take fourth and fifth examinations if he successfully completes a one year refresher course for each examination.[32]
  • The four-year bachelor's degree is required before admission to law school. Hence, every bar examinee has to hold at least two degrees—one in law and one in another field. In the past, law schools readily admit high school graduates and two-year Associate in Arts degree holders.[33]

After the end of the Second World War, the passing rate in the succeeding years was remarkably high, ranging from 56 to 72% percent. However, after Associate Justice J.B.L. Reyes, a noted scholar, was appointed Chairman of the 1955 Bar Examinations, the passing rate for that year dropped dramatically to 26.8%, with a mortality rate of 73.2%. That ratio has been invariably maintained in the 50+ years since.[34]

Waiting period[edit]

The largely essay-type exams are manually checked by members of the Committee of Bar Examiners. Candidates have to wait from the last Sunday of the bar exams in September up to the date of the release of results, which traditionally happens before or during the Holy Week (the last week of March or the first week of April) of the following year.

During this period, candidates (who already hold law and bachelor's degrees) may opt to work in law firms and courts as legal researchers, teach in liberal arts and business colleges, function in companies and organizations using their pre-law degrees (i.e. Communication Arts, Accounting, Economics, Journalism, etc.), help run the family business, or take a long vacation.[35]

Admission of successful bar examinees[edit]

The Office of the Bar Confidant of the Philippine Supreme Court releases the Official List of Successful Bar Examinees, usually during the last week of March or the first week of April of every year. Candidates whose names appear in the list are required to take and subscribe before the Supreme Court the corresponding Oath of Office.[36]

Candidates shall take an Oath of Office and sign their names in the Roll of Attorneys of the Supreme Court.[37] The oath-taking is usually held in May at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC) with a formal program where all Justices of the Supreme Court, sitting en banc, formally approve the applications of the successful bar candidates. The eight bar examiners are officially introduced to the public. A message to the newly inducted lawyers is delivered by one of the justices. Candidates who made the bar top ten list are also introduced and honored. The deans of all Philippine law schools are requested to attend the ceremony and grace the front seats of the plenary hall.[12]


In the 1930s, a distant relative of Imelda Romualdez Marcos who was a Justice in the High Court resigned after a controversy involving the bar examinations. Justice Ramon Fernandez was forced to protect his name and honor when he resigned because of a bar examination scandal.[1]

On November 23, 1979, the High Court, per Justice Pacifico de Castro ordered new examinations in labor and social legislation and taxation.

On May 7, 1982, 12 of the Supreme Court's 14 justices resigned amid expose "that the court fixed the bar-examination score of a member's son so that he would pass." Justice Vicente Ericta was accused to have personally approached the bar chairman to inquire whether his (Ericta's) son passed the bar. Ferdinand Marcos accepted the resignations and appointed the new Justices. Chief Justice Enrique Fernando wept at a news conference as he accepted responsibility for rechecking and changing the exam score of Gustavo Ericta, son of Justice Vicente Ericta.[38]

Associate Justice Fidel Purisima, chairman of the bar committee, did not disclose that he had a nephew who was taking the bar examination in that year. He was merely censured and his honoraria as bar examiner were forfeited.

On September 24, 2003, the Supreme Court, per a bleary-eyed Associate Justice Jose Vitug, annulled the tests results on mercantile law after "confirmation of what could be the most widespread case of cheating in the 104-year-old bar exams".[39]

Bar Topnotchers List[edit]

The Office of the Bar Confidant releases an official Bar Topnotchers list list together with the list of names of all successful bar examinees. The Bar Topnotchers list contains the names of the candidates who garnered the highest general averages in the bar exam for that year. The highest ranking candidate in the list is known as the bar topnotcher. The list has always been the subject of much media attention and public speculation.[40]

Making a place in the list is widely regarded as an important life achievement, an attractive professional qualification, and a necessary improvement in a lawyer's professional and social status.[40]

Famous bar topnotchers[edit]

Prominent lawyers who made the bar top ten include:[41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50]

Presidents and Vice-Presidents[edit]

Incidentally, each President who happened to be a lawyer was also a bar placer. In the 2010 presidential elections, candidate Gilberto Teodoro (an alumnus of the University of the Philippines) placed first in the 1989 Bar Exams, with a grade of 86.185%. He however was fourth in the elections, losing to Benigno S. Aquino III. A lawyer, Jejomar C. Binay (also from UP), won the Vice-presidency when he bested former Senator Manuel A. Roxas II (a grandson of the first bar topnotcher, President Manuel A. Roxas).

Two other topnotchers have sought previously failed to secure the presidency. Vice-President Pelaez (1938 Bar Topnotcher) lost the Nacionalista Party nomination to President Marcos (1939 Bar Topnotcher) in the 1965 presidential elections, while Senate President Jovito Salonga (1944 Bar Topnotcher) of the Liberal Party lost to President Ramos of Lakas-NUCD in the 1992 presidential elections.[51]

Supreme Court and Court of Appeals Justices[edit]

  • José Yulo - 6th Philippine Chief Justice; 3rd placer, 1913 Bar Exams (UP College of Law)
  • Ricardo Paras - 8th Philippine Chief Justice; 2nd placer, 1913 Bar Exams (UP College of Law)
  • César Bengzon - 9th Philippine Chief Justice; 2nd placer, 1919 Bar Exams (UP College of Law)
  • Roberto Concepcion - 10th Philippine Chief Justice; 1st placer, 1924 Bar Exams (UST Faculty of Civil Law)
  • Querube Makalintal - 11th Philippine Chief Justice; 7th placer, 1933 Bar Exams (UP College of Civil Law)
  • Enrique Ma. Fernando - 13th Philippine Chief Justice; 13th placer, 1938 Bar Exams (UP College of Law)
  • Ramon Aquino - 15th Philippine Chief Justice; 9th placer, 1939 Bar Exams (UP College of Law)
  • Claudio Teehankee - 16th Philippine Chief Justice; 1st placer, 1940 Bar Exams (Ateneo Law School)
  • Pedro Yap - 17th Philippine Chief Justice; 1st placer, 1946 Bar Exams (UP College of Law)
  • Andres Narvasa - 19th Philippine Chief Justice; 2nd placer, 1951 Bar Exams (UST Faculty of Civil Law)
  • Artemio Panganiban - 21st Philippine Chief Justice; 6th placer, 1960 Bar Exams (FEU Institute of Law)
  • José P. Laurel - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 2nd placer, 1915 Bar Exams
  • J. B. L. Reyes - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 6th placer, 1922 Bar Exams
  • Cecilia Muñoz Palma - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 1st placer, 1937 Bar Exams
  • Ambrosio Padilla - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 3rd placer, 1934 Bar Exams
  • Ameurfina Melencio-Herrera - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 1st placer, 1947 Bar Exams
  • Irene Cortes - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 9th placer, 1948 Bar Exams
  • Carolina A. Griño-Aquino - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 1st placer, 1950 Bar Exams
  • Isagani A. Cruz - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 8th placer, 1951 Bar Exams
  • Rafael C. Climaco - former Philippine Court of Appeals Justice; 5th placer, 1939 Bar Exams ( Ferdinand Marcos placed 1st )
  • Florentino Feliciano - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice and Chair, WTO Appellate Tribunal; 6th placer, 1952 Bar Exams
  • Florenz D. Regalado - former Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 1st placer, 1954 Bar Exams
  • Adolfo Azcuna - Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 4th placer, 1962 Bar Exams
  • Antonio Eduardo Nachura - Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 7th placer, 1967 Bar Exams
  • Presbitero Velasco, Jr. - Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 6th placer, 1971 Bar Exams
  • Antonio Carpio - Philippine Supreme Court Justice; 6th placer, 1975 Bar Exams
  • Arturo D. Brion - Philippine Supreme Court Justice; former Philippine Court of Appeals Justice; 1st placer, 1974 Bar Exams
  • Bienvenido V. Reyes - former Philippine Court of Appeals Presiding Justice; 5th placer, 1954 Bar Exams
  • Salome A. Montoya - former Philippine Court of Appeals Presiding Justice; 6th placer, 1954 Bar Exams
  • Alicia V. Sempio-Diy - former Philippine Court of Appeals Justice; 5th placer, 1950 Bar Exams
  • Oscar M. Herrera - former Philippine Court of Appeals Justice; 8th placer, 1953 Bar Exams
  • Demetrio Demetria - former Philippine Court of Appeals Justice; 2nd placer, 1964 Bar Exams
  • Mario Guariña III - former Philippine Court of Appeals Justice; 2nd placer, 1967 Bar Exams
  • Lucas Bersamin - Philippine Court of Appeals Justice; 9th placer, 1973 Bar Exams
  • Celia Librea-Leagogo - Philippine Court of Appeals Justice; 5th placer, 1981 Bar Exams

Only eleven of the 22 jurists who rose to become Chief Justice of the Supreme Court were bar placers, starting with José Yulo (3rd in 1913), followed by Ricardo Paras (2nd in 1913), then by César Bengzon (2nd in 1919), then by Roberto Concepcion (1st in 1924), then by Querube Makalintal (7th in 1933) then by Enrique Fernando (13th in 1938), then by Ramon Aquino (6th in 1939), then by Claudio Teehankee, Sr. (1st in 1940), then by Pedro Yap (1st in November 1946), then by Andres Narvasa (2nd in 1951) and finally by Artemio Panganiban (6th in 1960). However, the first four chief magistrates (Cayetano Arellano, Victorino Mapa, Manuel Araullo and Ramón Avanceña) became lawyers (all after graduating from the UST Faculty of Civil Law) before the establishment of the Bar Exams in 1901 while the fifth head of the judiciary (Jose Abad Santos) graduated from a foreign law school and was admitted to the Philippine bar in 1911. Six Chief Justices did not place in the Bar Exams: Manuel Moran (the father of Philippine remedial law), Fred Ruiz Castro (the father of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines), Felix Makasiar, Marcelo Fernan, Hilario Davide and the incumbent Reynato Puno).

Of the candidates to become the next Chief Justice (to replace the retiring Reynato Puno) only two were bar placers: Antonio Carpio (6th in 1975) of the UP College of Law and Arturo Brion (1st in 1974) of the Ateneo Law School. Both Carpio and Brion graduated valedictorian of their respective law classes. However, neither topnotcher made it to the apex of the judicial summit, as Atenean Renato C. Corona was appointed the chief magistrate.

Senators and Representatives[edit]

Of the lawyers who became President of the Senate, only the following were bar placers: Manuel Quezon (4th in 1903), Manuel Roxas (1st in 1913), Ferdinand Marcos (1st in 1939), Arturo Tolentino (2nd in 1934), Jovito Salonga (1st in 1944), Neptali Gonzales (9th in 1949), Ernesto Maceda (10th in 1956), Franklin Drilon (3rd in 1969) and Juan Ponce Enrile (11th in 1953). Of the incumbent senators with terms expiring in 2013, five are lawyers (Ateneo Law School's Alan Peter Cayetano as well as Edgardo Angara, Joker Arroyo, Francis Escudero, and Francis Pangilinan of the UP College of Law) and none of whom were previous bar placers. Curiously, Aquilino Pimentel III of the UP College of Law (who is contesting the seat occupied by Sen. Juan Miguel Zubiri) placed 1st in the 1990 Bar Exams.

On the other hand, of those who became Speaker of the House of Representatives, only the following were bar placers: Sergio Osmena, Sr. (2nd in 1903), Manuel Roxas (1st in 1913), José Yulo (3rd in 1913) Querube Makalintal (7th in 1933) and Prospero Nograles (2nd in 1971). Of the chamber's other officers, only Ronaldo Zamora was a former bar topnotcher (1st in 1969).

Curiously, the incumbent heads of both houses of Congress were previous bar placers: Ateneo Law School's Nograles for the lower house and UP College of Law's Ponce Enrile for the upper house. After the 2010 elections, former Rep. Nograles (who did not run for re-election) was replaced by lawyer Feliciano R. Belmonte, Jr. (from Lyceum of the Philippines) as Speaker. Sen. Enrile retained his post as Senate President.

Appointees and career service officials[edit]

Local officials[edit]


Private sector[edit]

1st place in the Philippine Bar Examinations[edit]

Name Year School Hometown
Epifanio de los Santos y Cristobal [52] 1898 University of Santo Tomas Malabon, Rizal
Manuel Roxas 1913 University of the Philippines Roxas City, Capiz
Manuel Goyena 1914 University of the Philippines
Francisco Villanueva 1915 University of the Philippines
Paulino Gullas 1916 University of the Philippines
Felipe Ismael 1917 University of the Philippines
Alejo Labrador 1918 University of the Philippines San Narciso, Zambales
Gregorio Anonas 1919 Philippine Law School
Adolfo Brillantes 1920 Escuela de Derecha
Pablo C. Payawal 1921 University of the Philippines
Amando L. Velila 1922 University of the Philippines
Roque Desquitado 1923 University of the Philippines
Roberto Concepcion 1924 University of Santo Tomas Manila
Rafael Dinglasan 1925 University of the Philippines
Eugeniano Perez 1926 Philippine Law School
Cesar Kintanar 1927 University of the Philippines
Filomeno B. Pascual 1928 Philippine Law School
Lorenzo Sumulong 1929 University of the Philippines Antipolo City
Tecla San Andres 1930 University of the Philippines
Jose Leuterio 1931 University of the Philippines
Hermenegildo Atienza 1932 University of the Philippines
Lope C. Quimbo 1933 University of Manila Catbalogan, Samar
Marciano Catral 1934 Philippine Law School
Enrique Estrellado 1935 University of the Philippines
Diosdado Macapagal 1936 University of Santo Tomas Lubao, Pampanga
Cecilia Muñoz-Palma 1937 University of the Philippines Bauan, Batangas
Emmanuel Pelaez 1938 University of Manila Medina, Misamis Oriental
Ferdinand Marcos 1939 University of the Philippines Sarrat, Ilocos Norte
Claudio Teehankee 1940 Ateneo de Manila University Manila
Emmet P.D. Shea 1941 University of the Philippines
Jovito Salonga 1944 University of the Philippines Pasig, Rizal
Jose Diokno Special (University of Santo Tomas)
Gregoria Cruz 1945 University of the Philippines
Pedro Yap 1946 University of the Philippines San Isidro, Leyte
Ameurfina Melencio-Herrera 1947 University of the Philippines
Manuel Montecillo 1948 Far Eastern University Candelaria, Quezon
Anacleto C. Mañgaser 1949 Philippine Law School Caba, La Union
Carolina A. Griño-Aquino 1950 Special (Colegio de San Agustin, University of the Philippines) Capiz
Vicente R. Acsay 1951 University of Manila
Pedro Samson C. Animas 1952 University of the Philippines
Leonardo A. Amores 1953 University of Manila
Florenz D. Regalado 1954 San Beda College Concepcion, Iloilo
Tomas P. Matic, Jr. 1955 Far Eastern University
Francisco C. Catral 1956 San Beda College
Gregorio R. Castillo 1957 University of the Philippines
Manuel G. Abello 1958 University of the Philippines
Agustin O. Benitez 1959 Far Eastern University
Ismael Andres 1960 Manuel L. Quezon University
Avelino V. Cruz 1961 San Beda College
Deogracias G. Eufemio 1962 University of the Philippines
Cornelio C. Gison 1963 Ateneo de Manila University
Jesus P. Castelo 1964 San Beda College
Victor S. de la Serna 1965 San Beda College Tagbilaran City, Bohol
Roberto San Jose 1966 University of the Philippines
Rodolfo D. Robles 1967 San Beda College
Oscar B. Glovasa 1968 Divine Word College of Tagbilaran Tagbilaran City, Bohol
Ronaldo B. Zamora 1969 University of the Philippines
Romulo D. San Juan 1970 University of the Philippines
Henry R. Villarica 1971 University of the Philippines
Januario B. Soller, Jr. 1972 Ateneo de Manila University
Vicente R. Solis 1973 Ateneo de Manila University Zamboanga City
Arturo D. Brion 1974 Ateneo de Manila University Manila
Nicanor B. Padilla, Jr. 1975 University of the East
Enrique Teehankee 1976 University of the Philippines
Virgilio B. Gesmundo 1977 Ateneo de Manila University
Cosme D. Rosell 1978 University of the Philippines
Gregorio M. Batiller, Jr. 1979 Ateneo de Manila University
Rafael R. Lagos 1980 University of the Philippines
Irene Ragodon-Guevarra 1981 Ateneo de Manila University
Ray C. Espinosa 1982 Ateneo de Manila University
Manuel Antonio J. Teehankee 1983 Ateneo de Manila University
Richard M. Chiu 1984 Ateneo de Manila University Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental
Janette Susan L. Peña 1985 University of the Philippines
Laurence L. Go 1986 Ateneo de Manila University
Mario P. Victoriano 1987 Ateneo de Manila University
Maria Yvette O. Navarro 1988 University of the Philippines
Gilberto Teodoro, Jr. 1989 University of the Philippines
Aquilino Pimentel III 1990 University of the Philippines Cagayan de Oro City
Joseph P. San Pedro 1991 Ateneo de Manila University
Jayme A. Sy, Jr. 1992 Ateneo de Manila University
Anna Leah Fidelis T. Castañeda 1993 Ateneo de Manila University
Francisco Noel R. Fernandez 1994 University of the Philippines Cebu City
Leonor Y. Dicdican 1995 University of the Philippines Cebu City
Patrcia-ann T. Progalidad 1996 University of the Philippines
Ma. Cecilia H. Fernandez 1997 University of the Philippines
Janet B. Abuel 1998 University of the Cordilleras
Florin Hilbay 1999 University of the Philippines
Edwin R. Enrile Ateneo de Manila University Naga City, Camarines Sur
Eliseo M. Zuñiga, Jr. 2000 University of the Philippines
Rodolfo Ma. A. Ponferrada 2001 University of the Philippines
Arlene Maneja 2002 University of Santo Tomas
Aeneas Eli S. Diaz 2003 Ateneo de Manila University
January A. Sanchez 2004 University of the Philippines
Joan A. De Venecia 2005 University of the Philippines
Noel Neil Q. Malimban 2006 University of the Cordilleras
Mercedita L. Ona 2007 Ateneo de Manila University
Judy A. Lardizabal 2008 San Sebastian College - Recoletos Imus, Cavite
Reinier Paul Yebra 2009 San Beda College
Cesareo Antonio Singzon, Jr. 2010 Ateneo de Manila University Catbalogan, Samar
Raoul Angelo Atadero 2011 Ateneo de Manila University Meycauayan City, Bulacan
Ignatius Michaeal D. Ingles 2012 Ateneo de Manila University
Nielson G. Pangan 2013 University of the Philippines

External links[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^, Record 6,533 to take 2008 Bar Exams - SC
  2. ^, First bar exam in RP held in 1901, with 13 test takers
  3. ^, 1,289 pass bar exams
  4. ^ a b Section 5, Rule 138, Revised Rules of Court.
  5. ^ Section 6, Rule 138, Revised Rules of Court.
  6. ^ Section 2, Rule 138, Revised Rules of Court.
  7. ^ Section 12, Rule 138, Revised Rules of Court.
  8. ^ Section 12, Rule 138, Revised Rules of Court.
  9. ^ Section 12, Rule 138, Revised Rules of Court.
  10. ^ Rufus Rodriguez. Slaying the Bar Exams Dragon. Rex Bookstore, 2002.
  11. ^
  12. ^ a b Rufus B. Rodriguez. Slaying the Bar Exams Dragon. Rex Bookstore, 2002.
  13. ^ Section 14, Rule 138, Revised Rules of Court.
  14. ^ Section 14, Rule 138, Revised Rules of Court.
  15. ^ a b c Bar Passing Percentage from 1946-2003. The Practice: Business & Leisure Magazine for Lawyers. August–September 2004 Issue.
  16. ^
  17. ^, With Due Respect, How Arroyo can help produce better lawyers
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l List of Bar Topnotchers from 1913 to 2006, Office of the Bar Confidant, Supreme Court of the Philippines.
  19. ^ a b c Manila Times, 12 April 2008
  20. ^
  21. ^ Florenz Regalado
  22. ^ News5 (October 6, 2013). "The 'brilliant' Ferdinand Marcos and others who made Bar exams history". TV5 News Centre. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  23. ^ GMA NEWS.TV, Women outshine men in RP bar exams
  24. ^ News5 (October 6, 2013). "The 'brilliant' Ferdinand Marcos and others who made Bar exams history". TV5 News Centre. Retrieved 16 November 2013. 
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^ a b
  28. ^ Cruz, Miguel. "Bar Topnotchers 1970-2000". Inquirer. Inquirer. Retrieved June 12, 2003. 
  29. ^ Business Mirror, 1 April 2008
  30. ^ Rufus B. Rodriguez. Legal Research. Rex Bookstore, 2002.
  31. ^ Section 6, Rule 138, Revised Rules of Court.
  32. ^ Supreme Court resolution in Bar Matter No. 1161. 2005.
  33. ^ Section 6, Rule 138, Revised Rules of Court.
  34. ^ JBL: Selected Speeches and Essays in Honor of Justice Jose B.L. Reyes, p. 57-58
  35. ^ Ricardo B. Teruel. Practical Lawyering in the Philippines. Revised Edition. Central Professional Books, 1999.
  36. ^ Section 17, Rule 138, Revised Rules of Court.
  37. ^ Section 19, Rule 138, Revised Rules of Court.
  38. ^, AROUND THE WORLD; 12 Philippine Justices Resign in Scandal. Since the 1982 "Ericta Scandal", it was only in 2008 that the Court relaxed the fixed rules on passing grades amid the inhibitions of 5 Justices whose relatives took the exams.
  39. ^ sun star, Bar leakage extends exams by one Sunday
  40. ^ a b "Results of the Philippine Bar Exams." TV Patrol World, ABS-CBN, March 2006.
  41. ^ Roll of Attorneys of the Supreme Court, June 2007.
  42. ^ Faculty and alumni list, Ateneo School of Law, June 2007.
  43. ^ Faculty and alumni list, FEU Institute of Law, June 2007.
  44. ^ Faculty and alumni list, Lyceum of the Philippines College of Law, June 2007.
  45. ^ Faculty and alumni list, MLQU College of Law, June 2007.
  46. ^ Faculty and alumni list, San Beda College of Law, June 2007.
  47. ^ Faculty and alumni list, San Sebastian College-Recoletos College of Law, June 2007.
  48. ^ Faculty and alumni list, UE College of Law, June 2007.
  49. ^ Faculty and alumni list, UP College of Law, June 2007.
  50. ^ Faculty and alumni list, UST Faculty of Civil Law, June 2007.
  51. ^
  52. ^