Philippine House of Representatives elections, 2013
|District election results; results for Metro Manila is magnified at the top right.|
The 2013 Philippine House of Representatives elections was the 33rd lower (or sole) house election in the Philippines. It was held on May 13, 2013 to elect members to the House of Representatives of the Philippines that would serve in the 16th Congress of the Philippines from June 30, 2013 to June 30, 2016.
The Philippines uses parallel voting for the House of Representatives: first past the post on 234 single member districts, and via closed party lists on a 2% election threshold computed via a modified Hare quota (3-seat cap and no remainders) on 58 seats, with parties with less than 1% of the first preference vote winning one seat each if 20% of the party-list seats are not filled up. Major parties are not allowed to participate in the party-list election.
While the concurrent Senate election features the two major coalitions in Team PNoy and the United Nationalist Alliance (UNA), the constituent parties of the coalitions contested the lower house election separately, and in some districts, candidates from the same coalition in the Senate are contesting a single seat. Campaigns for the House of Representatives are done on a district-by-district basis; there is no national campaign conducted by the parties. No matter the election result, the party of the president usually controls the House of Representatives, via a grand coalition of almost all parties. Only the ruling Liberal Party can win a majority, as it is the only party to put up candidates in a majority of seats.
After release of preliminary results, the Liberal Party emerged as the largest party in the chamber. Its coalition partners also held most of their seats. Incumbent Speaker Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. is expected to be easily reelected as the Speaker of the 16th Congress.
- 1 Electoral system
- 2 District changes
- 3 Marginal seats
- 4 Retiring and term-limited incumbents
- 5 Defeated incumbents
- 6 Open seat gains
- 7 Results
- 8 Aftermath
- 9 References
The election for seats in the House of Representatives is done via parallel voting. A voter has two votes: one for one's local district, and another via the party-list system. A candidate is not allowed to stand for both ballots, and parties participating in the district elections would have to ask for permission on the Commission on Elections, with major parties not allowed to participate in the party-list election.
Election via the districts
Each district sends one representative to the House of Representatives, with the winner with the highest number of votes winning that district's seat. The representatives from the districts comprise at most 80% of the seats.
Election via the party-list system
In the party-list system, the parties contesting the election represent a sector, or several sectors, or an ethnic group. In determining the winners, the entire country is treated as one "district". Each party that surpasses the 2% election threshold automatically wins one seat, they can win an additional number of seats in proportion to the number of votes they received, but they can't have more than three seats. The representatives elected via the party-list system, also known as "sectoral representatives" should comprise at least 20% of the seats. However, since the winners from the parties that surpass the 2% threshold had not reached the 20% quota ever since the party-list system was instituted, the parties that received less than 1% of the first preference vote are given one seat each until the 20% quota has been filled up.
The parties contesting the district elections campaign at the district level; there is no national-level campaigning. While no party has been able to win a majority of seats in the House of Representatives since the 1987 elections, the party of the incumbent president had usually controlled the chamber in the phenomenon known locally as the "Padrino System" or patronage politics, with other parties aligning themselves with the president's policies in exchange for pork barrel and future political favors.
While the parties contesting the Senate election grouped themselves into two major electoral alliances (Team PNoy and the United Nationalist Alliance), the constituent parties of those alliances separately contested the elections to the House of Representatives. However, as stated above, the parties will again coalesce once the 16th Congress of the Philippines convenes.
Reapportioning (redistricting) the number of seats is either via national reapportionment after the release of every census, or via piecemeal redistricting for every province or city. National reapportionment has not happened since the 1987 constitution took effect, and aside from piecemeal redistricting, the apportionment was based on the ordinance from the constitution, which was in turn based from the 1980 census.
These are the following laws pertaining to redistricting that were passed by Congress. While a locality that has a minimum of 250,000 people is constitutionally entitled to one district representative, Congress should enact a law in order for it to take effect. The creation of new districts may be politically motivated, in order to prevent political allies (or even opponents) from contesting one seat.
|House Bill No.||District(s)||Current||Proposed||Note||Status|
|4111||Cotabato||2||3||Signed into law - RA 10177|
|4245||Quezon City–2nd||1||3||Quezon City-2nd to be split into three districts.||Signed into law - RA 10170|
|5236||Bukidnon||3||4||Signed into law - RA 10184|
|5608||Palawan-2nd||1||2||Puerto Princesa and Aborlan to be separated from Palawan-2nd.||Signed into law - RA 10171|
|Potential new districts||16||Approved new districts||5|
The number of new legislative districts may also increase the seats allocated for party-list representatives: for every five new legislative districts, one seat for a party-list representative is also created.
These are seats were the winning margin was 3% or less, politicians may choose to run under a different political party as compared to 2010. This excludes districts where the nearest losing candidate or that candidate's party is not contesting the election, or districts that were redistricted.
|District||2010 Winner||Political party on 2010 election day||Current
|2013 opponent||Political party||2010 margin||2013 result|
|Biliran||Rogelio Espina||Nacionalista||Liberal||Glenn Chong||PMP||0.45%||Liberal hold|
|Camarines Sur–5th||Salvio Fortuno||Nacionalista||Liberal||Emmanuel Alfelor||NPC||0.62%||Liberal hold|
|Batanes||Dina Abad||Liberal||Liberal||Carlo Oliver Diasnes||Independent||1.06%||Liberal hold|
|Mountain Province||Maximo Dalog||Lakas-Kampi||Liberal||Jupiter Dominguez||UNA||1.54%||Liberal hold|
|Surigao del Norte–2nd||Guillermo Romarate, Jr.||Lakas-Kampi||Liberal||Robert Ace Barbers||Nacionalista||1.64%||Liberal hold|
|Manila–6th||Sandy Ocampo||Liberal||Liberal||Benny M. Abante||UNA||1.81%||Liberal hold|
|Zamboanga Sibugay–2nd||Romeo Jalosjos, Jr.||Nacionalista||Nacionalista||Dulce Ann Hofer||Liberal||1.85%||Liberal gain from Nacionalista|
|Isabela–2nd||Ana Cristina Go||Nacionalista||Nacionalista||Edgar Uy||Liberal||1.93%||Nacionalista hold|
|Cagayan de Oro–1st||Jose Benjamin Benaldo||PMP||Nacionalista||Rolando Uy||Liberal||2.03%||Liberal gain from Nacionalista|
|Bataan–1st||Herminia Roman||Lakas-Kampi||Liberal||Enrique T. Garcia||NUP||2.53%||Liberal hold|
|Northern Samar–2nd||Emil Ong||Lakas-Kampi||NUP||Ramp Nielsen Uy||Liberal||2.67%||NUP hold|
|Batangas–3rd||Nelson Collantes||PMP||Liberal||Victoria Hernandez-Reyes||Nacionalista||2.78%||Liberal hold|
|Cotabato–2nd||Nancy Catamco||Lakas-Kampi||Liberal||Bernardo Piñol, Jr.||Independent||2.88%||Redistricted; Liberal hold|
|Zamboanga del Norte–2nd||Rosendo Labadlabad||Liberal||Liberal||Ronald Yebes||NUP||2.93%||Liberal hold|
Retiring and term-limited incumbents
These are the incumbents who are not running for a seat in the House of Representatives, and are not term limited:
|Bacolod||Independent||Anthony Golez, Jr.||Evelio Leonardia||NPC||Golez is an NPC member running as an independent.|
|Baguio||UNA||Bernardo Vergara||Nicasio Aliping||Independent|
|Batangas–1st||Liberal||Tomas Apacible||Eileen Ermita-Buhain||Lakas||Apacible defeated Ermita-Buhain's father Eduardo in the 2010 general election.|
|Bukidnon–1st||NPC||Jesus Emmanuel Paras||Maria Lourdes Acosta||Liberal||Paras defeated Acosta's mother Socorro in the 2010 general election.|
|Cagayan de Oro–1st||Nacionalista||Jose Benjamin Benaldo||Rolando Uy||Liberal||Benaldo beat Uy's son Rainier in the 2010 general election.|
|Caloocan–2nd||Nacionalista||Mitzi Cajayon||Edgar Erice||Liberal|
|Cebu–2nd||NUP||Pablo P. Garcia||Wilfredo Caminero||Liberal||Garcia is one of the deputy speakers.|
|Iloilo–2nd||UNA||Augusto Syjuco, Jr.||Arcadio Gorriceta||Liberal|
|Laguna–3rd||Liberal||Maria Evita Alvaro||Sol Aragones||UNA|
|Lanao del Sur–1st||Independent||Hussein Pangandaman||Ansaruddin Adiong||Liberal|
|Marinduque||NUP||Lord Allan Jay Velasco||Regina Ongsiako Reyes||Liberal||Velasco beat Reyes' brother Edmundo in the 2010 general election.|
|Misamis Occidental–2nd||Liberal||Loreto Leo Ocampos||Henry Oaminal||Nacionalista|
|Northern Samar–1st||Liberal||Raul Daza||Harlin Abayon||Nacionalista||Daza is one of the deputy speakers. It was the closest House race with a margin of victory of 52 votes.|
|Pampanga–3rd||NPC||Aurelio Gonzales, Jr.||Oscar Rodriguez||Liberal|
|Sulu–2nd||NPC||Nur Ana Sahidulla||Maryam Arbison||Liberal|
|Tarlac–3rd||NUP||Jeci Lapus||Noel Villanueva||Nacionalista|
|Zambales–2nd||Sulong Zambales||Jun Omar Ebdane||Cheryl Delloso-Montalla||Liberal||Ebdane beat Delloso-Montalla in the 2012 special election.|
|Zamboanga Sibugay–2nd||Nacionalista||Romeo Jalosjos, Jr.||Dulce Ann Hofer||Liberal||Jalosjos defeated Hofer's brother George in the 2010 general election.|
Open seat gains
Only the Liberal Party can win the election outright by placing candidates in a majority of seats. With 292 seats, including seats reserved for sectoral representatives, 147 seats are needed for a majority, and only the Liberal Party is contesting more than 150 seats.
The Liberal Party did win a near majority of the district seats. They are expected to form a coalition with other Team PNoy component parties, other parties, most independents, and most party-list representatives for a large working majority. Lakas-CMD is expected to form the minority bloc anew, while the United Nationalist Alliance and left-leaning representatives may join either bloc.
A total of six independents won, one less than in 2010.
The vote totals below were collected from the results displayed from the COMELEC's "Transparency" server. These are partial and unofficial. The seats won are the ones which had been officially proclaimed by the COMELEC.
|Total||%||Swing||Entered||Up||Gains||Holds||Losses||Wins||Elected||%[hd 1]||+/−[hd 2]|
|Liberal (Liberal Party)||10,557,265||38.31%||18.38%||160||93||22||84||9||4||110||37.7%||17|
|Bukidnon Paglaum (Hope for Bukidnon)||100,405||0.36%||0.36%||1||1||0||1||0||0||1||0.3%|
|Kusug Agusanon (Progressive Agusan)||71,436||0.26%||0.26%||1||1||0||1||0||0||1||0.3%|
|KKK (Struggle for Peace, Progress and Justice)||54,425||0.20%||0.16%||2||[hd 3]||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|Akbayan (Akbayan Citizens' Action Party)||34,239||0.12%||0.12%||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|Liberal Party coalition||10,817,770||39.22%||19.77%||165||95||22||85||9||4||112||38.6%||17|
|UNA (United Nationalist Alliance)||3,140,381||9.31%||9.31%||55||11||3||5||6||0||8||2.7%||3|
|PDP-Laban (Philippine Democratic Party – People's Power)||281,320||1.02%||0.29%||13||[hd 4]||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|PMP (Force of the Filipino Masses)||144,030||0.52%||1.98%||11||[hd 5]||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|KABAKA (Partner of the Nation for Progress)||94,966||0.34%||0.14%||1||1||0||1||0||0||1||0.3%|
|Magdiwang (Magdiwang Party)||23,253||0.08%||0.06%||1||0||0||1||0||0||1||0.3%||1|
|1-Cebu (One Cebu)||21,936||0.08%||0.08%||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|United Nationalist Alliance coalition||3,705,886||11.36%||3.55%||82||12||3||7||6||0||10||3.4%||2|
|Kambilan (Shield and Fellowship of Kapampangans)||96,433||0.35%||0.35%||1||0||1||0||0||0||1||0.3%||1|
|Unang Sigaw (First Cry of Nueva Ecija–Party of Change)||94,952||0.35%||0.34%||1||0||1||0||0||0||1||0.3%||1|
|United Negros Alliance||91,467||0.34%||0.34%||1||1||0||1||0||0||1||0.3%|
|Hugpong (Party of the People of the City)||65,324||0.24%||0.24%||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|Sulong Zambales (Forward Zambales)||60,280||0.22%||0.22%||1||1||0||0||1||0||0||0.0%||1|
|PPP (Party of Change for Palawan)||57,485||0.21%||0.21%||1||0||1||0||0||0||1||0.3%||1|
|BALANE (New Force of Nueva Ecija Party)||39,372||0.14%||0.14%||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|Tingog Leytenon (Positive Leyte)||34,025||0.12%||0.13%||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|AZAP (Forward Zamboanga Party)||15,881||0.06%||0.06%||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|Ompia (Ompia Party)||1,682||0.01%||0.01%||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|Unaffiliated local parties||556,901||2.02%||1.84%||10||2||3||1||1||0||4||1.4%||2|
|NPC (Nationalist People's Coalition)||4,800,907||17.36%||1.40%||71||40||4||34||6||4||42||14.4%||2|
|NUP (National Unity Party)||2,402,097||8.69%||8.69%||34||30||0||24||6||0||24||8.2%||6|
|Nacionalista (Nationalist Party)||2,364,400||8.55%||2.79%||44||20||5||13||7||0||18||6.2%||2|
|Lakas (People Power-Christian Muslim Democrats)||1,472,464||5.33%||32.09%||24||18||0||13||5||1||14||4.8%||4|
|Aksyon (Democratic Action)||97,982||0.35%||0.09%||8||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|KBL (New Society Movement)||94,484||0.34%||0.12%||1||1||0||1||0||0||1||0.3%|
|LDP (Struggle of the Democratic Filipinos)||90,070||0.33%||0.15%||4||1||1||1||0||0||2||0.7%||1|
|CDP (Centrist Democratic Party of the Philippines)||68,281||0.25%||0.25%||1||1||0||1||0||0||1||0.3%|
|Ang Kapatiran (Aliance for the Common Good)||19,019||0.07%||0.06%||4||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|PMM (Workers' and Farmers' Party)||10,396||0.04%||2.59%||4||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|PLM (Party of the Laboring Masses)||10,196||0.04%||0.04%||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|Makabayan (Patriotic Coalition of the People)||3,870||0.01%||0.01%||2||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|DPP (Democratic Party of the Philippines)||1,071||0.00%||0.00%||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.0%|
|Valid votes||27,584,741||About 8.3 million votes are not included as they weren't included in the Transparency server. It is unknown which of those are valid or invalid votes.|
|Registered voters (without overseas voters)||52,014,648||100%||2.54%|
- Of all 292 House members, including party-list representatives.
- From last composition of the 15th Congress.
- All incumbent KKK representatives are co-nominated by the Liberal Party.
- All incumbent PDP-Laban representatives are running under the United Nationalist Alliance.
- All incumbent PMP representatives are running under the United Nationalist Alliance.
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The Commission on Elections was supposed to release results for the party-list election along with the results for the Senate election; however, the commission suspended the release of results after questions of whether to include votes for the twelve disqualified parties, although not with finality, were to be included or not. Canvassing of results for the party-list election resumed on May 19 after the 12 senators-elect were already proclaimed, with the commission meeting to determine on what to do with the votes of the twelve disqualified parties. On May 22, the commission announced that they will proclaim the winning parties, but not the number of seats.
|Senior Citizens||677,642||2.46%||1.96%||1[p 1]||2||1|
|1 ang Pamilya||131,632||0.48%||0.26%||1||0||1|
|Alyansa ng OFW||50,670||0.18%||0.13%||0||0|
|Invalid and blank votes||12,578,779||31.33%||8.16%|
*2 seats still to be decided; while the Senior Citizens party-list has been approved its registration, its nominees had not yet been proclaimed due to an ongoing dispute on two sets of nominees.
- Senior Citizens originally had two representives. When one of the Senior Citizens representatives resigned, the Commission on Elections refused to elevate the next person on the list as an elected representative after it was revealed to be a part of a term-sharing agreement which the commission prohibited.
|Region||Details||Seats won per party||Total seats|
|Lakas||Liberal||Nacionalista||NPC||NUP||UNA||Others & ind.|
|United Negros Alliance||1||0||1||0.3%|
|Other party-list representatives||0||11||49||16.8%|
Preliminary results states that President Aquino's allies winning an overwhelming majority of seats in the House of Representatives. This makes Aquino the only president enjoy majorities in both houses of Congress since the People Power Revolution of 1986. This is seen as an endorsement of the voters of Aquino's reformist agenda; although several key wins elsewhere by the United Nationalist Alliance and its allies would mean that Aquino's chosen successor may face a significant challenge in the 2016 presidential election.
Speaker Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. is seen to keep his speakership position with the Liberals winning at least 100 out of the 234 district seats. Majority Leader Neptali Gonzales II said that a great majority of incumbents are poised to successfully defend their seats, and that the Liberal Party are to be the single largest party in the lower house. The Nacionalista Party has at least 15 winning representatives, "a substantial number" of the 40 incumbents Nationalist People's Coalition are to hold their seats, and the 34-member National Unity Party House leader Rodolfo Antonino expects Belmonte to be reelected as speaker. The United Nationalist Alliance won three seats in Metro Manila, and at least 2 more seats outside the metropolis.
Election for the Speakership
15th Congress Speaker Feliciano Belmonte, Jr. easily won reelection for the speakership. The race for minority leader, usually given to the person finishing second in the speakership race, was narrowly won by Ronaldo Zamora over Ferdinand Martin Romualdez. There was one abstention, from Toby Tiangco, who wanted to be an independent. Belmonte also abstained from voting, while Romaualdez and Zamora voted for themselves; if Belmonte only had one opponent he would've voted for his opponent, and his opponent would've voted for him (as seen in the 15th Congress speakership election). Since there were more than two nominees, the traditional courtesy votes did not push through.
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- Dizon, Nikko (2013-05-20). "Suspended party-list canvass resumes". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2013-05-23.
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- "Philippines' Aquino wins rare Congress majority in mid-term polls". Reuters. 2013-05-14. Retrieved 2013-05-20.
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- Boncocan, Karen (2013-07-22). "House re-elects Belmonte in overwhelming vote". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved 2013-07-22.