Philippine Military Academy
|Philippine Military Academy|
|Akademiyang Militar ng Pilipinas|
|Motto||Courage, Integrity, Loyalty|
|Established||February 17, 1905|
|Superintendent||MGEN. Nonato Peralta Jr., AFP|
|Location||Loakan, Fort Gregorio Del Pilar, Baguio City, Benguet, Philippines|
|Campus||Fort del Pilar (373 hectares)|
|Former names||Officer's School, Philippine Constabulary (1905-1926)
Philippine Constabulary Academy (1926-1935)
|Hymn||PMA Alma Mater Song|
The Philippine Military Academy (Tagalog: Akademiyang Militar ng Pilipinas) or PMA, is the Philippine military school of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). PMA was established on December 21, 1936 by the virtue of Commonwealth Act No. 1 (commonly known as the National Defense Act). PMA is located in Baguio, Benguet province. It is the training school for future officers of the AFP.
General Antonio Luna, Secretary of War for an insurgent revolutionary government which had been established on June 23, 1898, was commissioned to organize a cohesive standing army. He realized that an Officer Corps had to be trained in order to attain his goal. He recruited the best of the former Spanish "Guardia Civil" (Army) Officers to be the members of the faculty of the institution, Academia Militar.
The Academia was established by General Emilio Aguinaldo, and was meant as a training ground for future officers of the armed forces. Its first superintendent was (Spanish) Captain Manuel Bernal Sityar, Jr. The Academia Militar was forced to close down on January 20, 1899, however, as hostilities broke out between the Americans and Filipinos. The Philippine Revolutionary Army was effectively disbanded on November 13, 1899, when General Aguinaldo decreeed a shift to a Guerilla warfare strategy. Aguinaldo's insurgent government effectively ceased to exist with his capture by American forces on March 23, 1901. On April 1, 1901, Aguinaldo swore an oath accepting the authority of the United States over the Philippines and pledging his allegiance to the American government.
An Officer's School of the Philippine Constabulary was established on February 17, 1905 within the walls of Intramuros in Manila. This school was later to be relocated to Baguio on September 1, 1908. After the Philippine Legislature passed Act No. 3496 on September 8, 1926, the school was renamed the Philippine Constabulary Academy and courses were lengthened from nine months to three years.
When the National Defense Act was approved on December 21, 1935, the Philippine Constabulary Academy was renamed Philippine Military Academy and was permitted to grant its graduates Bachelor of Science degrees after completion of their four-year curriculum. PMA was modeled after the United States Military Academy with officers from the Philippine Scouts and regular United States Army as instructors and members of the general staff.
With the outbreak of World War II, training was disrupted at the PMA with Classes 1942 and 1943 being graduated prematurely and assigned to combat units in Bataan and other parts of the country. Many of these young officers perished in the war.
After the war, the Academy was reopened on May 5, 1947, at Camp Henry T. Allen in Baguio City. But due to its increasing need for larger grounds, it was soon moved to its present location at Fort Gen Gregorio H Del Pilar, Loakan, some ten kilometers from downtown Baguio. During the 1960s, as a need for more well-rounded individuals was found to be desirable, socio-humanistic courses were added to the school's curriculum.
1993 proved a momentous year for the PMA as its first female cadets were admitted and specialization based on branch-of-service was introduced into the curriculum. The first female cadets graduated from the Academy in 1997.
- Armed Forces of the Philippines
- National Defense College of the Philippines
- List of Philippine Military Academy alumni
- Over 11,000 men, women apply for PMA exam
- Article IV, Commonwealth Act No. 1 of 1935
- About the Philippine Military Academy
- Armed Forces of the Philippines
- Gov. Sahali lauds PMA for holding entrance examinations in Tawi-Tawi
- "About the Academy". Official website of the Philippine Military Academy.[not in citation given]
- "Proclamation No. 35, s. 1998". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines.[not in citation given]
- "Philippine Military Academy 115th Anniversary". Tempo.
- Guevara, Sulpico, ed. (2005). The laws of the first Philippine Republic (the laws of Malolos) 1898-1899.. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Library (published 1972). pp. 35-40. Retrieved 2013-11-22.. (English translation by Sulpicio Guevara)
- "Commonwealth Act No. 1 : The National Defense Act". Chan Robles Law Library. December 21, 1935.
- Jose, Ricardo Trota (1992). The Philippine Army, 1935-1942. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-971-550-081-4. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- McCoy, Alfred W. (1999). Closer Than Brothers: Manhood at the Philippine Military Academy. Yale University Press. p. 31. ISBN 9780300077650. Retrieved 11 September 2012.
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