Philippine Revolutionary Army
|Philippine Revolutionary Army
Panghimagsikang Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas
Ejercito en la Republica de la Filipina
Ejercito en la Republica de la Filipina Emblem, 1897
|Founded||March 22, 1897|
|Size||100,000 to 1,000,000 (1898)[not in citation given]|
|Part of||Artemio Ricarte, Capitan-General|
|Colors||Blue, Red, Gold and White|
|Artemio Ricarte, Antonio Luna|
The Philippine Revolutionary Army (Filipino:Panghimagsikang Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas) or Ejercito en la Republica de la Filipina was founded on March 22, 1897 in Cavite. General Artemio Ricarte was designated as its first Captain General during the Tejeros Convention. This armed force of General Emilio Aguinaldo's central revolutionary government replaced the Katipunan military.
The revolutionary army used the 1896 edition of the Spanish regular army's Ordenanza del Ejercito or to organize its forces and establish its character as a modern army. Rules and regulations were laid down for the reorganization of the Army, new fighting methods adopted, regulation of ranks, adoption of new rank insignias and a standard uniform known as rayadillo. Filipino artist Juan Luna is credited with this design. His brother, General Antonio Luna commissioned him with the task. Juan Luna also designed the collar insignia for the uniforms, distinguishing between the services; Infantry, Cavalry, Artillery, Sappers and Medics. At least one researcher has postulated that Juan Luna may have patterned the tunic after the English Norfolk jacket, since the Filipino version is not a copy of any Spanish-pattern uniform.
The main weapon of the new Filipino army was the Spanish M93, also the standard infantry arm of the Spanish, and the Remington Spanish rifle. Crew-served weapons of the Philippine military included lantakas, Krupp guns, Hontoria guns, an Ordóñez gun, Hotchkiss guns, Nordenfelt guns, Maxim guns, and Colt guns. Also, there were improvised artillery weapons made of water pipes reinforced with bamboo or timber, which can only fire once or twice.
Orders and circulars were issued covering matters such as building trenches and fortifications, equipping every male aged 15 to 50 with bows and arrows (as well as bolo knives, though officers wielded European swords), enticing Filipino soldiers in the Spanish Army to defect, collecting empty cartridges for refilling, prohibiting unplanned sorties, inventories of captured arms and ammunition, fundraising, purchase of arms and supplies abroad, unification of military commands, and exhorting the rich to give aid to the soldiers.
Aguinaldo, after a month upon declaring Philippine independence, created a pay scale for officers in the army. Following the board, a brigadier general would receive 600 pesos annually, and a sergeant 72 pesos.
When the Philippine–American War erupted on February 4, 1899, the Republican Army suffered losses on every sector. Even Antonio Luna urged Apolinario Mabini, Aguinaldo's chief adviser, to insist to the President that guerrilla warfare must be announced as early as April 1899. Aguinaldo changed to guerilla methods on November 13, 1899, dissolving the regular army.
Mauser Rifle, Issued to the Regular Soldiers.
Revolver is used by the Officers in the Philippine Army.
A Maxim gun used in some operations.
the Nordenfelt Machine gun Used by the army
The Hotchkiss gun's had used in some military operations at that time.
Krupp guns Used by the artillery regiments
The Ordóñez guns Used by the Coast Guards.
The evolution of Philippine revolutionary insignia can be divided into three basic periods; early Katipunan, late Katipunan and republican army.
|Image||Rank/Insignia||Equivalent Rank(s) in English||Image||Rank/Insignia||Equivalent Rank(s) in English|
|Tiniente Koronel||Lieutenant Colonel|
|Kapitan Heneral||Captain General
|Tiniente Heneral||Lieutenant General||Kapitan||Captain|
|Gial De Division||Major General||Tiniente||Lieutenant|
|Gial De Brigada||Brigadier General||Sarhento||Sergeant|
Recruitment and conscription
During the revolution against Spain, the Katipunan gave leaflets to the people to encourage them to join the revolution. Since the revolutionaries had become regular soldiers at the time of Emilio Aguinaldo, they started to recruit males and some females aged 15 and above as a form of national service.
Conscription in the Revolutionary Army was in effect in the Philippines and military service was mandatory at that time By the order of Gen.Antonio Luna, the Chief Commander of the Army during the Philippine-American War.
Flags and Banners
Flag of the Tagalog Republic.
revolution flag of the Cry of Pugadlawin.
The KKK flag of the Katipunan was also used in many Campaigns.
Banner of Pio del Pilar callde Bandila ng Matagumpay (Flag Of the Triumphants).
Banner of General Gregorio del Pilar used in his campaigns .
The Flag of the Katipuneros of the Bicol Region.
Flag of Negros Revolution.
During the existence of the Revolutionary Army, over 100 individuals were appointed to General Officer grades. For details, see the List of Filipino generals in the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War article.
Other notable officers
- Colonel Felipe Salvador - Commander of Santa Iglesia.
- Colonel Apolinar Velez
- Lieutenant Colonel Lazaro Macapagal - Commanding officer at the execution of the Bonifacios
- Major Juan Arce
- Major José Torres Bugallón - Hero of the Battle of La Loma
- Captain José Bernal - Aide to Captain General Antonio Luna
- Colonel Pablo Tecson- Leader, Battle of Quinqua
- Colonel Alipio Tecson- Supreme Military Commander of Tarlac in 1900 and exiled to Guam
- Colonel Simon Tecson- Leader of Siege of Baler; signatory in fact of Biak na Bato Constitution
Foreign officers and servicemen
- General Juan Cailles - French/Indian mestizo who led Filipino forces in Laguna
- General Jose Valesy Nazaraire - Spanish.
- Brigadier General Jose Ignacio Paua - Full-blooded Chinese General in the Army.
- Brigadier General B. Natividad - Brigade Acting Commander in Vigan under General Tinio.
- Colonel Manuel Sitjar - Director of Academia Militar de Malolos (Former Captain in the Spanish Colonial Army)
- Colonel Sebastian de Castro - Spanish director of the military hospital at Malasiqui, Pangasinan.
- Colonel Damaso Ybarra y Thomas - Spanish.
- Lieutenant Colonel Potenciano Andrade - Spanish.
- Estaquio Castellor - French mestizo who led a battalion of sharpshooters.
- Major Candido Reyes - Instructor of Academia Militar de Malolos (Former Sergeant in the Spanish Colonial Army).
- Major  - Instructor of Academia Militar de Malolos (Former Sergeant in the Spanish Colonial Army).
- Major Jose Torres Bugallon - Spanish officer serving under General Luna.
- Captain Antonio Costosa - former officer in the Spanish Colonial Army.
- Captain David Fagen - Captain in Brigadier General Urbano Lacuna's troops (Black American Corporal in U.S. Army 24th Colored Regiment).
- Captain Francisco Espina - Spanish.
- Captain Estanislao de Los Reyes - Spanish aide-de-camp to General Tinio.
- Captain Feliciano Ramoso - Spanish aide-de-camp to General Tinio.
- Captain Mariano Queri - Spanish officer who served under General Luna as an instructor in the military academy and later as director general of the staff of the war department.
- Captain Camillo Richairdi - Italian.
- Captain Telesforo Centeno - Spanish.
- Captain Arthur Howard - American deserter from 1st California Volunteers.
- Captain Glen Morgan - American who organized insurgent forces in central Mindinao.
- Captain John Miller - American who organized insurgent forces in central Mindinao.
- Captain Russel - American deserted from the 10th Infantry.
- Lieutenant Danfort - American deserted from the 10th Infantry.
- Lieutenant Maximino Lazo - Spanish.
- Lieutenant Gabriel Badelly Mendez - Cuban.
- 2nd Lieutenant Segundo Paz - Spanish.
- Lieutenant Alejandro Quirulgico - Spanish.
- Lieutenant Rafael Madina - Spanish.
- Lieutenant Arsenio Romero - Spanish.
- Lieutenant Rafael Madina - Spanish.
- Private John Allane - United States Army.
- Private Harry Dennis - United States Army.
- Private William Hyer - United States Army.
- Private Meeks (given name not specified) - United States Army.
- Private George Raymond - 41st Infantry, United States Army.
- Private Maurice Sibley - 16th Infantry, United States Army.
- Private John Wagner - United States Army.
- Private Edward Walpole - United States Army.
- Henry Richter - American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.
- Gorth Shores - American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.
- Fred Hunter - American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.
- William Denten - American deserter who joined General Lukban in Samar.
- Enrique Warren - American deserter who served Francisco Makabulos in Tarlac.
- Antonio Prisco - Spanish.
- Manuel Alberto - Spanish.Antonio Prisco - Spanish.
- Eugenia Plona - Spanish aide-de-camp of Baldermo Aguinaldo.
- Alexander MacIntosh - English.
- William McAllister - English.
- Charles MacKinley - Englishman who served in Laoag.
- James O'Brian - English.
- Captain Vicente Catalan - Chief of the Philippine Navy (Crew of the Spanish Colonial Navy).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Philippine Revolutionary Army.|
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