Philippine pangolin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Philippine pangolin
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Pholidota
Family: Manidae
Genus: Manis
Species: M. culionensis
Binomial name
Manis culionensis
de Elera, 1915
Philippine Pangolin area.png
Philippine pangolin range

The Philippine pangolin or Palawan pangolin, also known as the malintong (Manis culionensis), is a pangolin species endemic to the Palawan province of the Philippines. Like all pangolins, the Philippine pangolin is a mammal. Its habitat includes primary and secondary forests, as well as surrounding grasslands. This species is moderately common within its limited range, but is at risk due to heavy hunting, because of its valued scales and meat.[2] This species can be set apart from the very closely related Sunda pangolin by its smaller body to tail ratio. Compared to the Sunda pangolin, the Philippine pangolin has smaller scales and a shorter head.[3]


The species was first described by Casto de Elera in 1915; it was also mentioned by de Elera in an 1895 work.[4][5] In the past, this species has been included with the Sunda pangolin, Manis javanica, but has been considered a distinct species since 1998.[6] Five distinct morphological characteristics involving the skull and the scales have been identified which separate it from the closely related M. javanica. Both M. javanica and M. culionensis are grouped in subgenus Paramanis.[7] Genetic isolation leading to the speciation between these species is hypothesized to have been caused by rising sea levels severing a land bridge from Borneo in the Early Pleistocene.[8]


The Philippine pangolin has a diet manly of ants and termites. It uses its long tongue with a coating of adhesive saliva, that sticks the ants then pulls them into the mouth for consumption. They forage for their food with their long snouts for insects. They have no teeth to grind the insects, so they consume sand and small stones to help crush their meal.[9]


The Philippine pangolin is nocturnal and reclusive. They tend to be solitary creatures and don't travel in packs. While some of their time is spent on the ground foraging, Philippine pangolins tend to stay in trees. Like all pangolins, when threatened Philippine pangolins roll into a ball and are protected by their scales


While not everything is know about the reproduction of the Philippine pangolin, it is theorized that their mating habits and how they attract mates, are similar to that of the Sunda pangolin. Like almost all pangolins, Philippine pangolins, they mate in the spring. The gestation of a Philippine pangolin is close to 18 weeks. After the pangolin is born, it is weaned, or fed milk by the mother, usually around four months after birth.[10]


  1. ^ Lagrada, L., Schoppe, S. & Challender, D. (2014). "Manis culionensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-07-29. 
  2. ^ Manis culionensis in A synopsis of the mammilian fauna of the Philippine Islands. The Field Museum.
  3. ^ "Philippine Pangolin"
  4. ^ Schlitter, D. A. (2005). "Order Pholidota". In Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 530. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494. 
  5. ^ Catálogo sistemático de toda la fauna de Filipinas: conocida hasta el presente, y á la vez el de la colección zoológica del Museo de PP. Dominicos del Colegio-universidad de Sto. Tomás de Manila, escrito con motivo de la Exposición Regional Filipina Imprenta del Colegio de Santo Tomás, 1895
  6. ^ ITIS Standard Report for Manis culionensis Taxonomic Serial No.: 727709
  7. ^ Paramanis in Wilson and Reeder's Mammal Species of the world: 3rd Edition
  8. ^ ASSESSING THE TAXONOMIC STATUS OF THE PALAWAN PANGOLIN MANIS CULIONENSIS (PHOLIDOTA) USING DISCRETE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS P. Gaubert and A. Antunes. Journal of Mammalogy Volume 86, Issue 6 (December 2005) Article: pp. 1068–1074
  9. ^
  10. ^ Helmsworth, A. 2011. "Manis culionensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed May 16, 2014 at