Philippine resistance against Japan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Philippine resistance against Japan
Propaganda poster depicts the Philippine resistance movement.jpg
Propaganda poster depicting the Philippine resistance movement
Date 1941–1945
Location Philippines (Southeast Asia)
Result Allied Victory–
 Empire of Japan

 Second Philippine Republic

 Commonwealth of the Philippines

TaiwanChinese irregulars
United States Americans

Hukbalahap flag.svg Hukbalahap

Moro Muslims

Commanders and leaders
Japan Masaharu Homma

Empire of Japan Tomoyuki Yamashita

Commonwealth of the Philippines Ramon Magsaysay

Commonwealth of the Philippines Ferdinand E. Marcos
Commonwealth of the Philippines Lt. Col. Manuel Enriquez
Commonwealth of the Philippines Lt. Col. Claude Thorp
Commonwealth of the Philippines Lt. Col. Martin Moses
Taiwan Huang Chieh
United StatesColonel Wendell Fertig
United StatesColonel Hugh Straughn

Hukbalahap flag.svg Luis Taruc

Datu Gumbay Piang
Salipada Pendatun
Sultan of Sulu Jainal Abirin
Sultan of Ramain Alonto

Units involved
Imperial Japanese military
Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Navy
Second Philippine Republic
Bureau of Constabulary
Philippine Commonwealth military
Philippine Commonwealth Army
Philippine Constabulary
Recognized Guerrilla Unit
Moro-Bolo Battalion
Maranao Militia
344,000 Japanese troops
160,000 Bureau of Constabulary troops
75,000 Makapili militia forces
260,000 local guerrilla resistance forces
850,000 Commonwealth Army and Constabulary troops
70,000 Hukbalahap Communist rebels[citation needed]
Casualties and losses
100,000 Imperial Japanese military
40,000 Bureau of Constabulary forces overall
10,000 Makapili militia fighters overall
70,544 local guerrilla resistance overall
60,000 Philippine Commonwealth military overall
12,000 Hukbalahap Communist rebels overall

During the Japanese occupation in World War II, there was an extensive Philippine resistance movement, which opposed the Japanese with active underground and guerrilla activity that increased over the years. Fighting the guerrillas were a Japanese-formed Bureau of Constabulary (later taking the name of the old Philippine Constabulary during the Second Republic),[1][2] Kempeitai,[1] and the Makapili.[3] Postwar studies revealed that around 260,000 persons were organized under guerrilla groups and that members of anti-Japanese underground organizations were more numerous.[4] Such was their effectiveness that by the end of World War II, Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces.[5]

Also by the end of the war, some 277 separate guerrilla units made up of some 260,715 individuals fought in the resistance movement.[6] Select units of the resistance would go on to be reorganized and equipped as units of the Philippine Army and Constabulary.[7]


The Attack on Pearl Harbor (called Hawaii Operation or Operation AI[8][9] by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters (Operation Z in planning)[10] and the Battle of Pearl Harbor[11]) was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941 (December 8 in Japan and the Philippines). The attack was intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions the Empire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States.

Immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese pushed on the operations to invade the Philippines. 43 planes bombed Tuguegarao and Baguio in the first preemptive strike in Luzon.[12] The Japanese forces then quickly conducted a landing at Batan Island, and by December 17, General Masaharu Homma gave his estimate that the main component of the United States Air Force in the archipelago was destroyed.[12] By January 2, Manila was under Japanese control and by January 9, Homma had cornered the remaining forces in Bataan.[12] By April 9, the remaining of the combined Filipino-American force was forced to retire from Bataan to Corregidor. Meanwhile, Japanese invasions of Cebu (April 19) and Panay (April 20) met enormous successes.[12] By May 7, after the last of the Japanese attacks on Corregidor, General Jonathan M. Wainwright announced through a radio broadcast in Manila the surrender of the Philippines. Following Wainwright was General William F. Sharp, who surrendered Visayas and Mindanao on May 10.[12]

Afterwards came the Bataan Death March, which was the forcible transfer, by the Imperial Japanese Army, of 60,000 Filipino and 15,000 American prisoners of war after the three-month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during World War II.[13] The death toll of the march is difficult to assess as thousands of captives were able to escape from their guards (although many were killed during their escapes), and it is not known how many died in the fighting that was taking place concurrently. All told, approximately 2,500–10,000 Filipino and 300–650 American prisoners of war died before they could reach Camp O'Donnell.[14]

Hukbalahap resistance[edit]

Main article: Hukbalahap

As originally constituted in March 1942, the Hukbalahap was to be part of a broad united front resistance to the Japanese occupation of the Philippines.[15] This original intent is reflected in its name: "Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon", which was "People's Army Against the Japanese" when translated into English. The adopted slogan was "Anti-Japanese Above All".[16]

The Huk Military Committee was at the apex of Huk structure and was charged to direct the guerrilla campaign and to lead the revolution that would seize power after the war.[16] Luis Taruc; a communist leader and peasant-organizer from a barrio in Pampanga; was elected as head the committee, and became the first Huk commander called "El Supremo".[16]

The Huks began their anti-Japanese campaign as five 100-man units. They obtained needed arms and ammunition from Philippine army stragglers, which were escapees from the Battle of Bataan and deserters from the Philippine Constabulary, in exchange of civilian clothes. The Huk recruitment campaign progressed more slowly than Taruc had expected, due to U.S. Army Forces Far East (USAFFE) guerrilla units, of which Ramon Magsaysay was included. The U.S. units already had recognition among the islands, had trained military leaders, and an organized command and logistical system.[16] Despite being restrained by the American sponsored guerrilla units, the Huks nevertheless took to the battlefield only 500 men and much fewer weapons. Several setbacks at the hands of the Japanese and with less than enthusiastic support from USAFFE units did not hinder the Huks growth in size and efficiency throughout the war, developing into a well trained, highly organized force with some 15,000 armed fighters by war's end.[16] The Huks attacked both Japanese and other non-Huk guerrillas.[17]

Moro resistance on Mindanao and Sulu[edit]

The Moro Muslims of Mindanao and Sulu took up arms and fought hard against the Japanese invasion and helped defeat the Japanese occupation.[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] Some of the Moros had been fighting the Americans just weeks before the Japanese invaded and proceeded to direct their fight against the new invaders as well.[26][27] Sultan Jainal Abirin II of Sulu opposed the Japanese invasion.[28][29]

The Moro juramentados performed suicide attacks against Japanese troops,[30] as they had against the Spanish, Americans and Filipinos, but did not ever attack the Chinese since the Chinese were not considered enemies of the Moro people.[31][32][33][34][35] The Japanese responded to these suicide attacks by massacring all the relatives of the attacker.[36]

An American POW Herbert Zincke recalled in his secret diary that the Japanese guarding him and other prisoners were scared of the Moro warriors and tried to keep as far away from them as possible to avoid getting attacked.[37] The American First Lieutenant Mel Amler recalled that some of the Moros would sometimes attack and stab Japanese, Filipino, and Americans, fighting all of them at once.[38][39][40] Neither the Moros nor the Japanese respected the Geneva Convention in regards to not attacking medics, the Moros out of ignorance and the Japanese because they did not sign the treaty.[41] American General Robert L. Eichelberger saw a Japanese soldier who was captured by the Moros and feared being tortured at their hands, and he wanted Eichelberger to kill him to stop it from happening.[42] The American POW Victor L. Mapes saw Japanese troops getting ambushed and slaughtered by Moro fighters with kris blades.[43][44] The Moros were skilled at melee combat, with some Moros deliberately impaling their own shoulder on Japanese bayonets and grabbing it to make it stay in place while killing the Japanese soldier using a bayonet or bolo with their other hand.[45][46][47][48][49][50]

Anti-Japanese Moro units like the Maranao Militia were led by Salipada Pendatun,[30] another anti-Japanese Moro unit, the Moro-Bolo Battalion was led by Datu Gumbay Piang, consisting of about 20,000 men.[51][52][53] Gumbay Piang's Cotabato Moros used Bolo knives to fight the Japanese,[54][55][56] and swore that they would "fight to the last".[57][58] An oath was sworn by Alonto, the Sultan of Ramain, and 10,000 other Moros in Lanao that they would fight to drive the Japanese out, and sent in a message that said "We have prepared our bladed weapons because we lack firearms, and with sharp kris, barong, campilan, tabas and spear we will attack or defend as ordered,"[59][60][61][62][63][64] "and no mercy asked."[65] Alonto said "all fighting men of Lanao would like to sign their names, but they are too many".[66] They promised to fight to the death against the Japanese and "swore upon the Koran".[67] The Japanese demanded that all the natives in the Philippines hand over any implement which was a weapon or could be utilized as a weapon, including Bolo knives, and the Japanese may have issued this order because of the Moro pledge to fight the Japanese since the Moros were skilled with bladed weapons.[68][69][70] The American Captain Edward Kraus recommended Moro fighters for a suggested plan to capture an airbase in Lake Lanao for eventually driving the Japanese occupiers out of the Philippines.[71]

Davao in Mindanao had a large population of Japanese immigrants who acted as a fifth column, welcoming the Japanese invaders during World War II. These Japanese were hated by the Moros and disliked by the Chinese.[72][73] The Moros were judged as "fully capable of dealing with Japanese fifth columnists and invaders alike."[74] The Moros were to fight the Japanese invaders when they landed at Davao on Mindanao.[75][76][77][78][79][80] The Japanese went back to their ships at night to sleep since the Moros struck so much fear into them, even though the Moros were outnumbered by the Japanese.[81][82][83][84][85][86][87]

It was reported that most of Mindanao was dominated by Moro, Filipino, and American guerilla forces during the Japanese occupation.[88] The Moros had cleared the Japanese out from the Muslim areas of Mindanao six months before America returned to liberate the Philippines at the Battle of Leyte.[89][90] The Moros then joined in on the battle to liberate the rest of Mindanao from the Japanese in 1945.[91][92][93]

Nur Misuari, part of the Moro National Liberation Front, stated that the Japanese "exhibited tyranny, cruelty and inhumanity at its lowest level", and "had to suffer their worst defeat and highest death mortality at the hands of the Bangsamoro freedom fighters".[94]

A Muslim cleric from the Sulu in the Philippines, Imam Marajukim, helped supply Chinese and Suluk Muslim guerillas under Albert Kwok on British Borneo who were fighting the Japanese.[95][96][97][98][99] Suluks were described as "strongly disposed to be anti-Japanese".[100][101] Imam Marajukim helped the Chinese secure the indigenous participation in the uprising by Panglima Ali's Suluks, Mantanni and Danawan (Dinawan) islands Binadan inhabitants and Oudar Islanders under Orang Tuah Arshad.[102]

The Imperial Japanese Navy medic Akira Makino revealed that while he was stationed on Mindanao at Zamboanga from December 1944 to February 1945, he and other Japanese troops in his unit killed Moro Muslim prisoners by beheading or performed vivisections on them, cutting them open while they were alive to study their internal organs,[103] and the Japanese also forced the Moros to dig their own graves.[104][105][106]

Some of the weapons used by the Moros against the Japanese were again used by them in the Moro insurgency in the Philippines.[107]

USAFFE and American sponsored guerrillas[edit]

After Bataan and Corregidor, many who escaped the Japanese reorganized in the mountains as guerrillas still loyal to the U.S. Army Forces Far East (USAFFE). One example would be the unit of Ramon Magsaysay in Zambales, which first served as a supply and intelligence unit. After the surrender in May 1942, Magsaysay and his unit formed a guerrilla force which grew to a 10,000-man force by the end of the war.[108] Another was the Hunters ROTC which operated in the Southern Luzon area, mainly near Manila. It was created upon dissolution of the Philippine Military Academy in the beginning days of the war. Cadet Terry Adivoso, refused to simply go home as cadets were ordered to do, and began recruiting fighters willing to undertake guerrilla action against the Japanese.[109][110] This force would later be instrumental, providing intelligence to the liberating forces led by General Douglas MacArthur, and took an active role in numerous battles, such as the Raid at Los Baños. When war broke out in the Philippines, some 300 Philippine Military Academy and ROTC cadets, unable to join the USAFFE units because of their youth, banded together in a common desire to contribute to the war effort throughout the Bataan campaign. The Hunters originally conducted operations with another guerrilla group called Marking's Guerrillas, with whom they went about liquidating Japanese spies. Led by Miguel Ver, a PMA cadet, the Hunters raided the enemy-occupied Union College in Manila and seized 130 Enfield rifles.[111]

Also, before being proven false in 1985, Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos claimed that he had commanded a 9,000-strong force of guerrillas known as the Maharlika Unit. Marcos also used maharlika as his personal nom de guerre, depicting himself as the most bemedalled anti-Japanese Filipino guerrilla fighter during World War II.[112][113]

Guerrilla armies[edit]

A variety of guerrilla organizations sprang up in the Philippine Islands during the Japanese occupation. The following list begins with the LGF, the first major guerrilla organization in the Philippine Islands, then lists the major units on Luzon, Panay, and Mindanao, arranged in order of their locations, approximately north to south. Other units also existed on Luzon and almost every inhabited Philippine island.


  • Hukbalahap flag.svg Hukbalahap. The Hukbalahap (literally, "the army to fight Japan") was formed by a Francisco Lava (or Lara) and Luis Taruc as a union of the Philippine communist and socialist parties at the outset of the war. It was a large, well organized and most ruthless guerrilla organization numbering 100,000 members at its maximum strength. The Huks had on-going contact with members of the Free Philippines underground in Manila, although there was no formal relationship with that group. Based at Mount Arayat in Pampanga Province, the Huks made it clear that they intended to form a communist government in Pampanga and eventually to take over the government of the Philippines. Disagreements, and even battles, between the Huks and the USAFFE guerrillas were common. After the war, the Huks refused to disarm and continued to fight the Philippine government forces well into the 1950s. The Huk district political leaders were:
    • South Pampanga, Maj. Jose Banal (aka Jose Poblete).
    • East Pampanga, Felipe Culala (aka Dayang-Dayang), a female guerrilla.
    • North of Mt. Arayat, Esuebio Aquino.
    • Nueva Ecija, Jose "Dimasalang" de Leone.
    • West Pampanga, Abelardo Dabu.
    • Bulacan, Ramon Robles.
    • Laguna, Pedro Villegas (aka Carlos Hassim).

Militarily the Huks fielded combat "Squadrons" of 100 men each, divided into platoons and squads. Two squadrons = a battalion, and two battalions = a regiment. Each squadron had a commander, a vice-commander, a political instructor, a supply officer, and an intelligence officer, although there were no ranks.

    • Sqdn 25, Nueva Ecija, commander Leon Estares.
    • Sqdn 48, Manila, a Chinese squadron called "Wa Chi," commander Col. Ong.
    • Sqdn 58, Manila, a Chinese squadron, commander Alfonso de la Rosa.
    • Sqdn 77, Bulacan-Pampanga, commander Dante.
    • Sqdn 104, Pampanga, commander Guerrero (a woman who often dressed as a man).

Commonwealth and American forces[edit]

  • PhilippinesUnited States Luzon Guerrilla Force (LGF). During the Battle of Bataan in January 1942, Lt. Col. Claude Thorp, former Provost Marshall of Fort Stotsenberg, was authorized by General MacArthur to take a party of volunteers and infiltrate through enemy lines to establish a spy station in the Zambales Mountains above Clark Field. Thorp and his men observed Japanese activity on Clark Field and radioed reports of Japanese bombers taking off to attack Bataan and Corregidor. Thorp was also authorized to organize Filipino guerrillas to sabotage Japanese operations. After the American surrenders of Bataan and Corregidor, he formed the LGF, the original "USAFFE guerrilla" organization in the Philippines. Col. Thorp divided Luzon Island into four areas and appointed over each a commander, who was charged with recruiting guerrillas and forming an effective anti-Japanese guerrilla movement in his area of responsibility:
    • North Luzon Military District, Capt. Ralph Praeger until his capture in August 1943.
    • East Central Luzon Guerrilla Area (ECLGA), Captain Joe Barker until the Japanese captured Colonel Colonel Thorp in October 1942, then Lieutenant Edwin Ramsey.
    • Western Luzon Guerrilla Area, Captain Ralph McGuire until he was killed in April 1943, then Captain Gualberto Sia (aka Ernest Neuman).
    • Southern Luzon, Captain Jack Spies. However, Spies was killed on his way to South Luzon, and this part of the organization never materialized.

The Japanese captured Colonel Thorp in October, 1942 and his deputy, Captain Joseph R. Barker took command of LGF. In January 1943, Barker went into Manila disguised as a Catholic priest and was also captured, after which the LGF began to fall apart. There was never a unified guerrilla command in the Philippines after Barker's capture. Even though Colonel Thorp and all of his appointed commanders were captured and executed by the Japanese, several of the guerrilla organizations he established continued to grow and became quite effective in intelligence gathering and in harassing the Japanese. The story of Colonel Claude A. Thorp and his men is included in Bataan Diary.

  • PhilippinesUnited States North Luzon Military District. Capt. Ralph Praeger, 26th Cavalry, was commanding officer of Troop C near Baguio in northern Luzon. After the Japanese landings at Lingayen Gulf in December 1941, he marched his troop to Tuguegarao Airfield in the Cagayan Valley and attacked, destroying several Japanese aircraft. He and his men refused to surrender to the Japanese in May 1942, and Col. Thorp appointed him to organize Filipino guerrillas in North Luzon. He established his headquarters in Kabugao, Apayao and joined Marcelo Adduru's Cagayan-Apayao Force in July 1942. Praeger made radio contact with General MacArthur's headquarters in Australia late in 1942, and came under the nominal control of Lt. Col. Martin Moses in February 1943, until Moses was captured on June 3, 1943. Praeger was captured by the Japanese in August 1943. The remnants of his guerrilla organization were picked up and re-organized by Major Russell Volckmann and Capt. Donald Blackburn. Ralph Praeger was executed in Manila in December 1944, as General Mac Arthur's forces approached Luzon. More information on Ralph Praeger can be found in Bernard Norling's The Intrepid Guerrillas of North Luzon.
  • Philippines Cagayan Force. Founded Dec. 10 1941, immediately after the Japanese attack, by Major Marcelo Adduru who was governor of Cagayan province in north Luzon. Adduru's guerrillas consisted primarily of Cagayan Philippine Constabulary personnel. Adduru was captured and imprisoned in April 1943. As soon as he was paroled in October 1943, Adduru revived the Cagayan Force. He was re-captured on July 5, 1944, and a Col. Gonzalo took over, but most of the personnel went over to the 11th Infantry Regiment under Volckmann.
    • Cagayan-Apayao Force – Governor Marcelo Adduru formed this organization on July 6, 1942, by combining his guerrilla force, men from the 14th Infantry Regiment, PA, and Capt. Ralph Praeger's 26th Cavalry, PS, Troop C.
  • Philippines United States Army Forces in the Philippines–Northern Luzon (USAFIP-NL). Having escaped from Bataan, Lt. Col. Martin Moses and Lt. Col. Arthur "Maxie" Noble founded their guerrilla command in the northern mountains near Baguio. They contacted Philippine Army commanders in the area who had refused to surrender and guerrilla organizers from Col. Thorp's organization, and began to plan a major strike against the Japanese. On October 15, 1942, they attacked the Japanese-owned Itogon Mines near Baguio and held the area for more than a week. The Japanese counter-attacked with infantry and tanks and drove the guerrillas back into the mountains, then took heavy reprisals on the civilian villages in the area. Moses and Noble retreated into headhunter country, and began to collect intelligence data to send to General MacArthur. They were tracked down by the Japanese and captured in June 1943, then executed. Elements of their command became independent units or were taken over by Russell Volckmann's USFIP-NL and Bernard Anderson's Kalayaan Command. Their officers and commanders included Capt. Ralph B. Praeger, Maj. Thomas S. Jones, Col. Marcelo Adduru, and Ali Al-Rashid. The story of Colonels Moses and Noble is included in Bataan Diary.
  • Philippines 14th Infantry Regiment. After the Japanese attack in 1941, Capt. Guillermo Nakar and his Philippine Army battalion held out in the mountains of north Luzon until General Wainwright surrendered. Nakar refused to surrender and developed his unit into a guerrilla force of about 1100 men. He was in radio contact with General MacArthur's headquarters until August 1942, and MacArthur promoted Nakar to Lt. Col. Nakar was betrayed and captured in September 1942, and subsequently executed by the Japanese. His organization was taken over by Capt. Manuel Enriquiez, then Capt. Romulo Manriquez, and continued to operate independently until November 1943 when it was absorbed by Major Russell Volckmann's USFIP-NL.
  • United States United States Forces in the Philippines--Northern Luzon (USFIP-NL). Organized by Major (guerrilla Colonel) Russell Volckmann, USFIP-NL became one of the largest and best organized guerrilla operations on Luzon, and one of the most ruthless. In August 1943, when Capt. Ralph Praeger was captured, Volckmann took over his North Luzon Military District. In November 1943 Volckmann took over the remnants of Capt. Guillermo Nakar's 14th Infantry after Nakar was captured. In August 1944 he made radio contact with General MacArthur's headquarters, and in the fall of 1944 received 35 tons of supplies brought in by the submarine Seawolf. On January 9, 1945, Volckmann and his men met General MacArthur's invading forces on the beaches of Lingayen Gulf.
  • PhilippinesUnited States Luzon Guerrilla Armed Forces (LGAF) (Lapham's Raiders). 1st Lt. (guerrilla Major) Robert Lapham was a member of Lt. Col. Claude Thorp's original infiltration party. Thorp placed him in charge of recruiting guerrillas in Western Tarlac and Pangasinan provinces. When the Japanese captured Thorp, Lapham kept his own guerrilla organization intact and independent. When Volckmann claimed him as part of USFIP-NL, Lapham told General MacArthur's headquarters that he reported to Major Bernard Anderson's Kalayaan Command. At its peak, Lapham's organization was reported to include about 10,000 men. Lapham's Raiders, by Robert Lapham and Bernard Norling documents the activities of the LGAF. Behind Japanese Lines, by Ray Hunt and Bernard Norling documents Ray Hunt's escape from the Japanese and subsequent union with Robert Lapham.
  • Philippines South Tarlac Military District (STMD). Formed by Sgt. (guerrilla Capt.) Al Bruce in the mountains near Capas, Tarlac.
    • O'Donnell Regiment, Elisio V. Mallari.
  • PhilippinesUnited States East Central Luzon Guerrilla Area (ECLGA). After the fall of Corregidor on May 6, 1942, Lt. Col. Claude Thorp appointed Captain Joseph R. Barker, 26th Cavalry, to recruit Filipino guerrillas in the Luzon central provinces. Barker's organization was dubbed the East Central Luzon Guerrilla Area. When the Japanese captured Thorp in October 1942, Barker took command of Thorp's organization, turning ECLGA over to Lieutenant (guerrilla Major) Edwin Ramsey. The Japanese captured and executed Barker, but Ramsey continued to expand ECLGA and by October, 1944 may have had command of as many as 45,000 Filipino volunteers, including the Bulacan Military District and the Bataan Military District, one of the largest guerrilla organizations in the islands. ECLGA had continuing problems with the Hukbalahap, who were also located in central Luzon, and their differences erupted into gunfire on multiple occasions. The Huks attempted to assassinate Ramsey, and on at least one occasion Ramsey issued orders that Huks be shot on sight. Ramsey was in regular contact with the Manila underground, including Manuel Roxas in Manila, and had frequent courier contact with Major Jesus Villamor's "Planet" spy network and radio station on Negros Island. Colonel Ramsey has documented his activities and the history of the ECLGA in his book Lieutenant Ramsey's War. The relationship between Major Ramsey and John Boone's Bataan guerrillas is described in Bataan Diary.
    • Pampanga Military District, Col. Abelardo de Dios
    • Bataan Military District, Cpl. (guerrilla Col.) John P. Boone
    • Bulacan Military District, Col. Fausto Alberto
  • PhilippinesUnited States Squadron 155. Formed by Lt. Henry Clay Conner, an Air Corps signal officer who escaped from Bataan with Major Bernard Anderson, Squadron 155 was composed primarily of Negrito natives who lived along the east rim of the Zambales mountains above Clark Field and Fort Stotsenburg. Conner originally reported to Maj. Edwin Ramsey's ECLGA, but transferred his allegiance to Col. Gyles Merrill's LGF USFIP, nearby, when the latter became active during 1944. Conner ingratiated himself into the Negrito community and organized the spear and bow and arrow carrying natives into an anti-Japanese force. In 1944 he was joined by Lt. Felipe Maningo who headed a group of 150 Philippine Scouts. These men gathered intelligence data from Clark Field where many of them worked as laborers for the Japanese air corps, and passed it to Lt. Conner who passed it in turn to Col. Merrill, Al Bruce in Tarlac to his north, or to John Boone in Bataan to his south. Much of Squadron 155's data defined bombing targets for U.S. planes during the liberation, and their reports of Japanese fortifications in the Zambales Mountains led U.S. troops to root out the Japanese defenders, averting a deadly ambush of the U.S. 6th Army. Squadron 155 is described in On a Mountainside, by Malcolm Decker.
    • First Pampanga Regiment, Northwest Pampanga, Julian Mercado
    • Second Pampanga Regiment, Northwest Pampanga, Francisco Ocampo
    • Provisional Battalion of Negrito Scouts, Kojario Laxamana
    • 1st Provisional Battalion of Philippine Scouts, Lt. Felipe Maningo
  • PhilippinesUnited States Western Luzon Guerrilla Area (Zambales Military District) (Zambales guerrillas). Colonel Thorp appointed red-headed Captain Ralph McGuire, a pre-war mining engineer, to organize guerrillas in Zambales Province. McGuire was reasonably successful until the Japanese crackdown on guerrillas in April 1943, when he was betrayed for Japanese reward money. The Japanese cut off McGuire's head, mounted it on a pole, and paraded it through the villages of Zambales as a symbol of American weakness. However, the Zambales guerrilla organizations continued, headed by Gualberto Sia, who reported to Maj. Bernard Anderson's Kalayaan Command. During 1944, most of the 6,000 Filipino-led guerrillas in Zambales switched from Anderson's command to Col. Gyles Merrill, who was hiding in the Zambales Mountains and who outranked Major Anderson. In January, 1945, Capt. Ramon Magsaysay's guerrillas were successful in driving the Japanese off of the Zambales coast, enabling MacArthur's XI Corps to land on the beaches of Zambales unopposed. Once the area was under U.S. control, Col. Gyles Merrill recommended that Magsaysay be appointed provisional governor of Zambales. Magsaysay went on to become President of the Philippine Republic.

United States Philippine Islands Forces (USPIF)--Zambales, Gualberto Sia Subic Bay Area, Earnest Johnson Castillejos and San Marcellino, Antonio Francisco Coastal Zambales, Capt. Ramon Magsaysay Squadron D, H. S. Johnson.

  • PhilippinesUnited States Luzon Guerrilla Forces, United States Forces in the Philippines (LGF USFIP). Colonel Gyles Merrill escaped from the Death March and in August 1942 gathered a small group of officers who had been in hiding at the Fassoth Camp. He briefly offered his services to Lt. Col. Thorp (Merrill outranked Thorp), but when Thorp was captured in October 1942 Merrill and his men moved back into the Zambales Mountains and hid out until MacArthur's forces approached the Philippines in 1944. During this period Merrill made contact with and assumed nominal command of the Zambales guerrilla organizations, and made contact with the Chinese underground in Manila. As American forces began working their way through the Pacific in 1944, Merrill, as the highest-ranking officer in the Philippines, issued orders that all guerrilla commanders on Luzon were to report to him. A conflict developed, and only the guerrilla leaders in his immediate geographical area agreed to follow his orders When U.S. forces landed on the Zambales coast, they found the coast cleared of Japanese—the Zambales guerrillas acting under Merrill's orders had forced the Japanese off the coastline and back to the Subic Bay area. Colonel Merrill and his organization are described in Bataan Diary. Zambales Guerrillas, Gualberto Sia Mountain Group Command, Lt. Col. Eddie Wright:Provisional Regiment of Philippine Scouts, Lt. Col. Eddie Wright
  • PhilippinesUnited States Provisional Regiment of Philippine Scouts. Lt. Col. Eddie Wright, 45th Infantry (PS), refused to surrender to the Japanese and hid out in northern Bataan expecting that General MacArthur would return to the Philippines with reinforcements within a few months. When that did not happen, Wright at first became discouraged but then resolved to raise a battalion of former Philippine Scouts to attack the Japanese from the rear when Mac Arthur's army did return. Late in 1944, he approached Col. Gyles Merrill, LGF USFIP, for authorization to proceed with his plan and to solicit Merrill's logistical support. Merrill expanded Wright's planned battalion into a full regiment by assigning Philippine Scout organizations that had joined Al Bruce's South Tarlac Military District and Clay Conner's Pampanga Military District. Merrill assigned Wright's Scouts to prevent Japanese troops from crossing the Zambales mountains from the interior of Luzon to the coast. Wright got his regiment organized, but had no weapons with which to fight the Japanese until after the American forces landed at Lingayen beach and on the Zambales coast. After the American forces arrived and supplied them with arms in January 1945, the Philippine Scouts rejoined the regular U.S. Army and participated in operations against the Japanese until the war ended in August. The Provisional Regiment of Philippine Scouts is described in Bataan Diary.
    • 1st Battalion, Lt. Felipe Maningo
    • 2nd Battalion, Sgt. (guerrilla Capt.) Alfred Bruce
    • 3rd Battalion, Maj. Royal Reynolds
  • PhilippinesUnited States Bataan Military District. Formed by Corporal (guerrilla Colonel) John Boone, 31st Infantry, the Bataan Military District grew slowly in northern Bataan throughout the Japanese occupation. Boone was helped by, and reported to, Major Edwin Ramsey of ECLGA. He had regular contact with the Manila underground, specifically with Claire Phillips at Club Tsubaki, and he obtained intelligence reports from Manila Bay and from the Subic Bay area which he passed on to Major Ramsey. When General MacArthur's forces returned to Luzon in January 1945, Boone's forces sabotaged Japanese infrastructure on Bataan and conducted harassing attacks on the Japanese forces in the Zig-zag Pass. The Bataan Military District is described in detail in Bataan Diary.
    • 1st (guerrilla) Infantry Regiment, Lt. Col. Ceferino Regala, Dinalupihan area
    • 2nd (guerrilla) Infantry Regiment, Lt. Col. Victor Abad, bayside
    • 3rd (guerrilla) Infantry Regiment, Lt. Col. Andres Megano, seaside
    • 4th (guerrilla) Infantry Regiment, Lt. Col. Federico Lumbre, southern Bataan
  • PhilippinesUnited States Bulacan Military District/Area. Captain Joe Barker appointed Captain Alejo Santos to recruit guerrillas in Bulacan and form the Bulacan Military District. Major Edwin Ramsey succeeded to Barker's command after Barker was captured in 1942, and Santos decided to set up an independent guerrilla organization. Two regiments stayed in Ramsey's organization, under the command of Col. Fausto Alberto, and kept the name Bulacan Military District. Santos' regiment was thereafter designated the "Bulacan Military Area", and he worked loosely under the leadership of Major Bernard Anderson.
  • PhilippinesUnited States Kalayaan Command. Air Corps Major Bernard Anderson formed this organization of about 15,000 men in Tayabas (now Quezon) Province west of Manila after Col. Claude Thorp and Capt. Joe Barker were captured. Anderson had refused to surrender to the Japanese on Bataan, and found his way to Col. Thorp's camp where he was assigned to assist Barker in recruiting and organizing guerrillas in central Luzon. Anderson concentrated on intelligence gathering and propaganda. To avoid reprisals on the civilian population he refrained from attacking the Japanese until four days before General MacArthur's 6th Army landed at Lingayen Gulf.
    • Ball Military Area (aka Bulacan Military Area), Bulacan, Maj. Alejo Santos.
    • Ohio Military Area, Bicol, Maj. Russell Barrios.
    • Texas Military District, Lingayen Area.
    • Salt Military Area, Tayabas, Pedro Redor.
    • York Military District, Manila.
  • Republic of China (1912–49) Chinese Anti-Japanese Guerrilla Force. Manila and the surrounding areas had a substantial population of Chinese merchants who had migrated into the area over the years. Japan attacked China in 1937 and committed horrible atrocities there, so there was no love lost between the Chinese and Japanese. Under the leadership of Huang Chieh and a Col. Sheng, among others, the Chinese population of the Philippines actively opposed the Japanese as best they could. They raised money for relief efforts in China and for Generalissimo Chiang Kai-Shek's army, gathered intelligence information for General MacArthur, and fought as guerrillas in central Luzon.
  • PhilippinesUnited States South Luzon Military District. Colonel Thorp appointed Captain George J. "Jack" Spies, 26th Cavalry, to recruit Filipino guerrillas in Southern Luzon. As he traveled south from Thorp's headquarters in the Zambales mountains he was betrayed by a pro-Japanese Filipino and killed by the Japanese. The South Luzon Military District, therefore, never actually got off the ground. However, another guerrilla command was organized in South Luzon by Col. Hugh Straughn. See Fil-American Irregular Troops (FAIT), below.
  • PhilippinesUnited States Fil-American Irregular Troops (FAIT). During the siege of Bataan, General Douglas MacArthur authorized retired Spanish-American War veteran Colonel Hugh Straughn to organize the FAIT in the southern mountains near Antipolo, Rizal. As MacArthur left the Philippines and Bataan fell, Straughn extended his command to cover all of the area south and east of Manila. His was the only large, unified guerrilla command besides Col. Thorp's, and within the FAIT several other guerrilla organizations were born, including President Quezon's Own Guerrillas (PQOG), Terry Hunter's ROTC Guerrillas, and Marking's Guerrillas. When Straughn was captured in August, 1943, most of these organizations became independent under their respective leaders. Portions of FAIT remained intact under nominal control of "Col. Elliot P. Ellsworth" (General Vincente Lim) in Manila, until Lim was captured. Straughn and Lim were both executed by the Japanese.
  • Philippines Marking's Guerrillas. Two of the most colorful[according to whom?] guerrilla leaders in World War II were Marcos Villa Augustin (Marking), a former cab driver and boxer from Manila, and his deputy-mistress-wife-biographer Yay Panlillio, an American mestizo and former newspaper reporter. Marking's guerrillas formed in the Sierra Madre mountains east of Manila under Col. Straughn's umbrella, and became an independent organization when Straughn was captured in August 1943. Marking's organization developed a reputation for ruthlessness, and was often in open conflict with the nearby Hunters ROTC guerrillas.
    • 1st Army Corps, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas
    • 2nd Army Corps, Manila, Bulacan, Cavite
    • 3rd Army Corps, north Bulacan, Tarlac and Pangasinan

Associated groups:

    • Oldtimers, Col. Leon Z. Cabalhin, Laguna-Rizal
    • Batanguenos, Col. Daud Mangkon, Batangas
    • Texans, Maj. Patricio Emi (famous ex-bandit), Cavite and Mindoro
    • Highlanders, Maj. Carlos Crisostomo
    • Saboteurs, Col. Pablo Alora
    • McKinley Brigade, Col. Ortega
    • Anilao, Maj. Juan Santiago
  • Philippines Hunters ROTC Guerrillas. One of the more effective south Luzon guerrillas, Terry's Hunters were composed primarily of military academy and ROTC cadets. They were founded in Manila in January 1942 by Miguel Ver of the Philippine Military Academy, and moved in April to Rizal Province, where they came under Col. Hugh Straughn's FAIT. After the Japanese captured Straughn and Ver, the executive officer, Eleuterio Adevoso (aka Terry Magtanggol), also a Philippine Military Academy cadet, took over. They were among the most aggressive guerrillas in the war and made the only guerrilla raid on a Japanese prison, Muntinglupa (New Bilibid), to free their captured members and to obtain arms. They also participated in the liberation of Los Banos prison camp during liberation. Captain Bartolomeo Cabangbang, leader of the central Luzon penetration party, said that the Hunters supplied the best intelligence data on Luzon. The history of the unit is detailed in the book Terry's Hunters, by Proculo L. Mojica.
    • Manila & Rizal, CO: Amado Bagalay (Corporal, Philippine Constabulary)
    • Pasay, Pateros-Muntinglupa, CO: Juanito Ferrer (Philippine Military Academy)
    • San Pedro, Tuason-Caluan, CO: Justiniano Estrella (politician)
    • Lumbang-Pallita, CO: Lt. Col. Emanuel Ocampo (ROTC, Far Eastern University)
    • Tiaong-Antimonan, CO: Vincente Eustacio (ROTC, Jose Rial College)
    • Santo Tomas, Batangas, CO: Catalino Nera (PMTB)
  • Philippines President Quezon's Own Guerrillas (PQOG). Formed by General Vincente Umali, former mayor of Tiaong, Tayabas, this organization was located in Batangas, central Laguna and west central Tayabas. They were one of the better armed guerrilla organizations with as many as 7,000 of the 10,000 members in possession of firearms of one sort or another. Ferdinand Marcos reportedly started out with this group, and they maintained contact with guerrilla organizations in central Luzon, Manila and the Visayan islands. Once U.S. forces returned to the Philippines and began bombing Luzon, the PQOG was successful in rescuing a number of downed fliers and returning them to the U.S. Navy alive.
  • Philippines Fourth Philippine Corp. (Panay). Colonel Marcario Peralta and the 8,000 men of his 61st (guerrilla) Infantry Regiment controlled most of Panay Island except for the coastal towns occupied by the Japanese. He captured Governor Hernandez, accused him of being a Japanese collaborator, and installed Tomas Confessor as governor. He established an intelligence network that covered all of the Visayan Islands and established regular courier routes to Luzon to pick up intelligence data from the Manila underground. He competed with Colonel Wendell Fertig on Mindanao for control of neighboring islands until General MacArthur ordered all guerrilla commanders to stay within their established areas and cease expanding and competing with one another.
Among the signal units of Col Peralta were the 61 Signal Company manned by 2Lt Ludovico Arroyo Bañas, which was attached to forces of the 6th Military Division, stationed in Passi, Iloilo, under the command of Captain Eliseo Espia; and the 64th Signal Company of the same Military Division, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Cesar Hechanova, to which 2nd Lieutant Bañas was given the responsibility sometime later.[114]
  • United States U.S. Forces in the Philippines (USFIP) (10th Military District) (Mindanao). Colonel Wendell Fertig, a pre-war mining engineer, evaded the Japanese after the surrender and in August 1942, pretending to be a general sent in by MacArthur, took command of the Mindanao guerrilla organizations. His guerrillas controlled the mountainous, jungle-covered interior of Mindanao for much of the war while the Japanese held the inhabited coastal areas. He established radio contact with General MacArthur's headquarters, and received the first submarine contact and supplies sent out from Australia. He competed with Peralta on Panay for MacArthur's attention and for overall command of guerrilla forces in the area. In 1943 and again in 1944, the Japanese launched expeditions to suppress Fertig, and they were fairly successful although Fertig continued to operate from the interior of Mindanao for the rest of the war. They Fought Alone by John Keats tells Colonel Fertig's story on Mindanao, although the accuracy of the book has been challenged by Mindanao guerrilla leader Clyde Childress.[115]
    • 105th Division, Misamis Occidental and Zamboanga
        • 105th Infantry Regiment (on 24 April 1943 moved to the 108th Division and replaced by the 121st Infantry Regiment)
        • 106th Infantry Regiment
        • 107th Infantry Regiment
        • 115th Infantry Regiment
    • 106th Division, Cotobato and Davao
        • 116th Infantry Regiment
        • 118th Infantry Regiment
        • 119th Infantry Regiment
    • 107th Division, Southern Surigao, Agusan and Davao
        • 111th Provisional Battalion
        • 116th Provisional Battalion
        • 130th Infantry Regiment (after it was detached from the 110th Division)
        • Special Intelligence Detachment
    • 108th Division, Lanao
        • 105th Infantry Regiment (after 24 April 1943 when it was detached from the 105th Division)
        • 108th Infantry Regiment
        • 120th Infantry Regiment
        • Maranao Militia Force (MMF)
    • 109th Division, Misamis Oriental and Bukidnon
        • 109th Infantry Regiment
        • 111th Infantry Regiment
        • 112th Infantry Regiment
        • 117th Infantry Regiment
    • 110th Division, Misamis Oriental, Agusan and Surigao
        • 110th Infantry Regiment
        • 113th Infantry Regiment
        • 114th Infantry Regiment
        • 130th Infantry Regiment (later moved to the 107th Division)

Commonwealth military units[edit]

The Philippine Commonwealth Army and the Philippine Constabulary had some of over 100,000 to 750,000 local troops and military officers was included the men of local Christians and Muslims to joining the Commonwealth military under the American command are stationed of all military general headquarters in the major islands of the Philippines especially in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao are used the military active on 1942 to 1946 with an estimated 850,000 troops and officers and help them and aided by the recognized guerrilla force against the Japanese Imperial forces due to Japanese Occupation. They were first commanded by Major General Basilio J. Valdez is a Commanding General of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and other and several local military commanders of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary under the Commonwealth Government and the U.S. military command.

Philippine Commonwealth Army units
1st Military District, Philippine Commonwealth Army - Northern Luzon and Batanes Islands
2nd Military District, Philippine Commonwealth Army - North-Central Luzon
3rd Military District, Philippine Commonwealth Army - Central Luzon'
4th Military District, Philippine Commonwealth Army - Southern Luzon, Mindoro and Palawan
5th Military District, Philippine Commonwealth Army - Northern Luzon, Southern Luzon and Bicol Peninsula
6th Military District, Philippine Commonwealth Army - Panay and Romblon
7th Military District, Philippine Commonwealth Army - Negros and Siquijor
8th Military District, Philippine Commonwealth Army - Cebu and Bohol
9th Military District, Philippine Commonwealth Army - Leyte and Samar
10th Military District, Philippine Commonwealth Army - Mindanao and Sulu
Philippine Constabulary units
  • Commonwealth of the Philippines 1st Regiment - Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Cagayan, Isabela and Mountain Province
  • Commonwealth of the Philippines 2nd Regiment - La Union, Pangasinan, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija
  • Commonwealth of the Philippines 3rd Regiment - Bulacan, Pampanga, Bataan and Zambales
  • Commonwealth of the Philippines 4th Regiment - Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Mindoro and Palawan
  • Commonwealth of the Philippines 5th Regiment - Marinduque, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Albay, Catanduanes and Sorsogon
  • Commonwealth of the Philippines 6th Regiment - Iloilo, Antique and Capiz.
  • Commonwealth of the Philippines 7th Regiment - Negros Occidential and Negros Oriental.
  • Commonwealth of the Philippines 8th Regiment - Cebu and Bohol
  • Commonwealth of the Philippines 9th Regiment - Leyte and Samar
  • Commonwealth of the Philippines 10th Regiment - Agusan, Bukidnon, Cotabato, Davao, Lanao, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Surigao and Zamboanga

Imperial Japanese Army[edit]

The Japanese Army had some 300,000 to 400,000 troops stationed in the major islands of the Philippines especially in Luzon with an estimated 200,000 troops. Included 50,000 to 100,000 troops estimated in Visayas and 200,000 to 500,000 troops estimated in Mindanao. They were first commanded by Masaharu Homma but later on by Tomoyuki Yamashita on Luzon included Sōsaku Suzuki on Visayas and Gyosaku Morozumi on Mindanao.

Imperial Japanese Army units


  1. ^ a b "The Guerrilla War". American Experience. PBS. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 
  2. ^ Jubair, Salah. "The Japanese Invasion". Maranao.Com. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 
  3. ^ "Have a bolo will travel". Asian Journal. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 
  4. ^ "People & Events: Filipinos and the War". WGBH. 1999. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
    Rottman, Gordon (20 August 2013). US Special Warfare Units in the Pacific Theater 1941-45. Osprey Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 9781472805249. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
    Lapham, Robert; Norling, Bernard (1996). Lapham's Raiders: Guerrillas in the Philippines, 1942-1945. University Press of Kentucky. p. 225. ISBN 9780813126661. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  5. ^ Caraccilo, Dominic J. (2005). Surviving Bataan And Beyond: Colonel Irvin Alexander's Odyssey As a Japanese Prisoner Of War. Stackpole Books. pp. 287. ISBN 978-0-8117-3248-2. 
  6. ^ Schmidt, Larry S. (1982). American Involvement in the Filipino Resistance Movement on Mindanao During the Japanese Occupation, 1942–1945 (Master of Military Art and Science thesis). U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Retrieved 5 August 2011. 
  7. ^ Rottman, Godron L. (2002). World War 2 Pacific island guide. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-313-31395-0. Retrieved 7 May 2011. 
  8. ^ Prange, Gordon W., Goldstein, Donald, & Dillon, Katherine. The Pearl Harbor Papers (Brassey's, 2000), p.17ff; Google Books entry on Prange et al.
  9. ^ For the Japanese designator of Oahu. Wilford, Timothy. "Decoding Pearl Harbor", in The Northern Mariner, XII, #1 (January 2002), p.32fn81.
  10. ^ Fukudome, Shigeru, "Hawaii Operation". United States Naval Institute, Proceedings, 81 (December 1955), pp.1315–1331
  11. ^ Morison 2001, pp. 101, 120, 250
  12. ^ a b c d e The Fall of the Philippines – U. S. Army in World War II. 
  13. ^ Bataan Death March. Britannica Encyclopedia Online
  14. ^ Lansford, Tom (2001). "Bataan Death March". In Sandler, Stanley. World War II in the Pacific: an encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 157–158. ISBN 978-0-8153-1883-5. 
  15. ^ Saulo, Alfredo B., Communism in the Philippines: an Introduction, Enlarged Ed., Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1990, p. 31
  16. ^ a b c d e The Fall of the Philippines - Chapter 2. 
  17. ^ Sinclair, II, Major Peter T. (1 December 2011). "Men of Destiny: The American and Filipino Guerillas During the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines". DEFENSE TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER. Retrieved 2 September 2014. "These communist guerrillas fought against both the Japanese and other guerrilla bands." 
  18. ^ Gross, p. 178.
  19. ^ Assessment for Moros in the Philippines
  20. ^ Fallon "Igorot and Moro National Reemergence".
  21. ^ Fallon "Igorot and Moro National Reemergence" at the Wayback Machine (archived February 3, 2007).
  22. ^ Joes 2000, p. 124
  23. ^ Gowing 1965.
  24. ^ Turbiville, Jr., "Bearers of the Sword Radical Islam, Philippines Insurgency, and Regional Stability"
  25. ^ HURDS 1942, p. 1.
  26. ^ Milligan 2005, p. 81.
  27. ^ 1941 "TERRITORIES: Terror in Jolo"
  28. ^ DAVIS 1945, p. 7.
  29. ^ AP 1945, p. 5.
  30. ^ a b Federspiel 2007, p. 125.
  31. ^ Roces, p. 1702.
  32. ^ Roces 1978, p. 1702.
  33. ^ "Filipinas, Volume 11, Issues 117-128", 2002.
  34. ^ Gowing 1988, p. 56.
  35. ^ "Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indië, Volume 129" 1973, p. 111.
  36. ^ Amler 2008, pp. 47–48.
  37. ^ Zincke & Mills 2002, p. 47.
  38. ^ Amler 2008, p. 1.
  39. ^ Amler 2008, p. 2.
  40. ^ Tolley 2002, p. 138.
  41. ^ Amler 2008, p. 3.
  42. ^ Eichelberger & Eichelberger 1972, p. 270.
  43. ^ Mapes 2000, p. 150.
  44. ^ Mapes 2000, pp. 207–208.
  45. ^ LEE 1942, p. 2.
  46. ^ "Igorots Ride" 1942, p. 2.
  47. ^ FLOYD 1942, p. 3.
  48. ^ LEE 1942, p. 10.
  49. ^ LEE 1942, p. 30.
  50. ^ AP 1942, p. 6.
  51. ^ Arnold 2011, p. 271.
  52. ^ "Darangen: Epic of History" 1980, p. 88.
  53. ^ "DEFENDERS OF BATAN (A.A.P.) " 1942, p. 1.
  54. ^ United Press 1942, p. 5.
  55. ^ AP 1942, p. 6.
  56. ^ "Courageous Guerrillas Harass Japs On Bataan" 1942, p. 1.
  57. ^ "First Substantial Gains On Bataan" 1942, p. 2.
  58. ^ AP 1942, p. 1.
  59. ^ AP 1942, p. 7.
  60. ^ The Associated Press 1942, p. 19.
  61. ^ AP 1942, p. 7.
  62. ^ "Moros Pledge Fight to End On Japanese in Philippines" 1942, p. 7.
  63. ^ United Press 1942, p. 1.
  64. ^ THE NEW YORK TIMES 1943, p. 2.
  65. ^ AP 1942, p. 36.
  66. ^ AP 1942, p. 7
  67. ^ "FILIPINOS TOLD TO YIELD BOLOS" 1942, p. 2.
  68. ^ U.P. 1942, p. 1.
  69. ^ "Japs Order" 1942, p. 28.
  70. ^ AP 1942, p. 46.
  71. ^ A. P. 1942, p. 24.
  72. ^ Curtis 1942, p. 4.
  73. ^ CURTIS 1942, p. 4.
  74. ^ "80 Japanese Troop Ships Are Sighted Off Luzon" 1941, p. 7.
  75. ^ AP 1941, p. 1.
  78. ^ "Six Japanese Bombers In New Raid On Manila" 1941, p. 13.
  79. ^ THE NEW YORK TIMES 1941, p. 1.
  80. ^ "Large Force Is Attacking" 1941, p. 58.
  81. ^ LEE 1942, p. 8.
  82. ^ LEE 1942, p. 1.
  83. ^ LEE 1942, p. 7.
  84. ^ LEE 1942, p. 9.
  85. ^ Lee 1942, p. 2.
  86. ^ Lee 1942, p. 25.
  87. ^ Lee 1942, p. 4.
  89. ^ ed. Tan 2007, p. 197.
  90. ^ Maras 2013, p. 231.
  91. ^ THE ASSOCIATES PRESS 1945, p. 2.
  92. ^ ASSOCIATED PRESS 1945, p. 39.
  93. ^ "Small Gains" 1945, p. 3.
  94. ^ RRayhanR, "Reclaiming Bangsamoro Humanity from Foreign Colonizers", 29 JuLY 2012
  95. ^ Lim 2005, pp. 315 &318.
  96. ^ Evans 1990, p. 51.
  97. ^ Brooks 1995, pp. 119–120.
  98. ^ Cayrac-Blanchard 1970, p. 166.
  99. ^ ed. Kratoska 2013, p. 124.
  100. ^ ed. Kratoska 2013, p. 126.
  101. ^ Rahman 1966, p. 143.
  102. ^ Wong 1998, p. 160.
  103. ^ Parry, "The Australian" Dissect them alive: chilling Imperial that order could not be disobeyed 2007.
  104. ^ AFP A life haunted by WWII surgical killings 2007.
  105. ^ AFP Japanese veteran haunted by WWII surgical killings 2007.
  106. ^ Ozawa Japanese war veteran speaks of atrocities in the Philippines 2007.
  107. ^ Muslim 1994, p. 103.
  108. ^ Manahan, Manuel P. (1987). Reader's Digest November 1987 issue: Biographical Tribute to Ramon Magsaysay. pp. 17–23. 
  109. ^ "Philippine Resistance: Refusal to Surrender". Asia at War. 2009-10-17. History Channel Asia.
  110. ^ Mojica, Proculo (1960). Terry's Hunters: The True Story of the Hunters ROTC Guerillas. 
  111. ^ "Remember Los Banos 1945". Los Banos Liberation Memorial Scholarship Foundation, Inc. 2008. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  112. ^ Paul Morrow (January 16, 2009). "Maharlika and the ancient class system". Pilipino Express. Retrieved July 18, 2012. 
  113. ^ Quimpo, Nathan Gilbert. Filipino nationalism is a contradiction in terms, Colonial Name, Colonial Mentality and Ethnocentrism, Part One of Four, "Kasama" Vol. 17 No. 3 / July–August–September 2003 / Solidarity Philippines Australia Network,
  114. ^ Affidavit H18179, 6th Military District, Unit Number T-8, Province of Iloilo (for USAFFE Guerilla), dated 9 January 1946, signed at OTC, Sta. Barbara, Iloilo, Philippines by 2Lt Samuel L. Bell O-1329677, Summary Court Officer, US Processing Team No. 8. The document can be found in the Non-current Records of the Office of the Adjutant General of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, Camp General Emilio Aguinaldo, Quezon City.[unreliable source?]
  115. ^

Contemporaneous News Accounts[edit]

Further reading[edit]