Philippine revolts against Spain
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|Philippine revolts against Spain|
|Spain|| Dagohoy rebel group
other Filipino rebel groups
|Commanders and leaders|
| Santiago de Vera
Francisco de Tello de Guzman
other Spanish governor-generals and military commanders
| Francisco Dagohoy
other Filipino rebel commanders
During the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, there were several revolts against of the Spanish colonial government by native-born Filipinos and Chinese, often with the goal of re-establishing the rights and powers that had traditionally belonged to tribal chiefs and Chinese traders. Most of these revolts failed because the majority of the native population sided up with the Spanish colonial government and fought with the Spanish to put down the revolts.
The most important of those revolts led to the expulsion of a number of Chinese from the Philippines, but they were later allowed to return.
16th century 
Dayami Revolt (1567) 
Lakandula and Sulayman Revolt (1574) 
The Lakandula and Sulayman Revolt, also known as the Tagalog Revolt, was an uprising in 1574 against Spanish colonial rule led by Lakandula and Rajah Sulayman in Manila had a big land. The revolt occurred in the same year that the Chinese pirate Limahong attacked the palisaded yet poorly-defended enclosure of Intramuros. This Revolt was caused by losing Sulayman and Lakandula's kingdom when they were persuaded by Adelantado Legazpi to accept Spanish sovereignty on the promise that their people would be well-treated by the Spaniards.
The Lakandula and Sulayman revolt or the Tagalog revolt can be considered a revolt for personal reason. When Gov. Gen. Laezaris replaced Legaspi, he revoked their exemptions from paying tribute and confiscated their lands. Father Marin convinced Lakandula and Sulayman to abort the revolt and promised to grant their privileges. But this act of Spaniards was motivated by the presence of Limahong in Manila.
Pampangenos Revolt (1585) 
The Pampangenos Revolt was an uprising in 1585 by some native Kapampangan leaders who resented Spanish landowners, or encomenderos who had deprived them of their historical land inheritances as tribal chiefs. The revolt included a plot to storm Intramuros, but the conspiracy was foiled before it could begin after a Filipino woman married to a Spanish soldier reported the plot to the Spanish authorities. Spanish and Filipino colonial troops were sent by Governor-General Santiago de Vera, and the leaders of the revolt were arrested and summarily executed by Christian Cruz-Herrera the great.
Conspiracy of the Maharlikas (1587-1588) 
The Conspiracy of the Maharllikas, or the Tondo Conspiracy, of 1587-1588, was a plot against Spanish colonial rule by the kin-related noblemen, or datus, of Manila and some towns of Bulacan and Pampanga. It was led by Agustin de Legazpi, nephew of Lakandula, and his first cousin, Martin Panga. The datus swore to revolt by anointing their necks with a split egg. The uprising failed when they were denounced to the Spanish authorities by Antonio Surabao (Susabau) of Calamianes.
Revolts Against the Tribute (1589) 
The Cagayan and Dingras Revolts Against the Tribute occurred on Luzon in the present-day provinces of Cagayan and Ilocos Norte in 1589. Ilocanos, Ibanags and other Filipinos revolted against alleged abuses by tax collectors, including the collection of unjust taxes. It began when six tax collectors who had arrived from Vigan were killed. Governor-General Santiago de Vera sent Spanish and Filipino colonial troops to pacify the rebels. The rebels were eventually pardoned and the Philippine tax system reformed.
Magalat Revolt (1596) 
The Magalat Revolt was an uprising in 1596, led by Magalat, a Filipino rebel from Cagayan. He had been arrested in Manila for inciting rebellion against the Spanish. He was later released after some urging by some Dominican priests, and returned to Cagayan. Together with his brother, he urged the entire country to revolt. He was said to have committed atrocities against his fellow natives for refusing to rise up against the Spaniards. He soon controlled the countryside, and the Spanish eventually found themselves besieged.
The Spanish Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmán sent Pedro de Chaves from Manila with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops. They fought successfully against the rebels, and captured and executed several leaders under Magalat. Magalat himself was assassinated within his fortified headquarters by his own men.
17th century 
Igorot Revolt (1601) 
By order of then Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmán an expedition was sent to the Cordillera region for religious conversion serious purposes with the aid of Padre Esteban Marin. Marin, the curate of Ilocos at that time, who tried to initially convince the Igorots to convert peacefully to Christianity. Marin allegedly even tried to create his own dictionary in Igorot dialect to advance this cause. The Igorots, however, killed Marin and the Governor-General sent Captain Aranda with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops, who used brute force and had the Igorot villages cooled in his rage for the gain of the friar. The revolt was short-lived as Aranda made use of extreme measures and executed them quickly to dispel the revolt in the Cordillera region.
The Chinese Revolt of 1603 
In 1603, at least 30,000 Chinese merchants were slaughtered and in Luzon Chinese officials and civilians were killed without authority by what The Ming Shi-lu (明實錄, Míng shílù) describes as the barbarian (Spanish) chieftain of Luzon during that time. The surviving Chinese fled to Wawa, or what is now known as Guagua, this atrocity is known in Chinese history as the Luzon Tragedy (吕宋惨案, Lǚ sòng cǎn àn). The Chinese inhabitants of Manila set fire to Legarda and Binondo and for a time threatened to capture Intramuros.
Tamblot Revolt (1621-1622) 
The Tamblot Revolt or Tamblot Uprising was a religious uprising in the island of Bohol, led by Tamblot in 1621. The Jesuits first came to Bohol in 1596 and eventually governed the island and converted the Boholanos to the Catholic faith. Tamblot, a babaylan or native priest, urged his fellow Boholanos to return to the old native religion of their forefathers.
Bancao Revolt (1621-1622) 
The Bancao Revolt was a religious uprising against Spanish colonial rule led by Bancao, the datu of Carigara, in the present-day Carigara Philippine province of Leyte.
Bancao had warmly received Miguel López de Legazpi as his guest, when he first arrived in the Philippines in 1565. Although baptized as a Christian in his youth, he abandoned his faith in later years. With a babaylan, or religious leader named Pagali, he built a temple for a diwata or local goddess, and pressed six towns to rise up in revolt. Similar to the Tamblot Uprising, Pagali used magic to attract followers, and claimed that they could turn the Spaniards into clay by hurling bits of earth at them.
Governor-General Alonso Fajardo de Entenza sent the alcalde mayor of Cebu, Juan de Alcarazo, with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops, to suppress the rebellion. Bancao's severed head was impaled on a bamboo stake and displayed to the public as a stern warning. One of his sons was also beheaded, and one of the babaylans was burned at the stake. Three other followers were executed by firing squad. Other historical sources/accounts reports The Bancao Revolt as the first recorded uprising against foreign colonization. The (1621–1622) dates may be inaccurate. Carigara was evangelized only a decade after Magellan landed in Limasawa in 1521. The uprising may well have taken place towards the end of 16th century.
Itneg Revolt (1625-1627) 
The Itneg Revolt, or the Mandaya Revolt, was a religious uprising against Spanish colonial rule led by Miguel Lanab and Alababan, two Christianized Filipinos from the Itneg or Mandaya tribe of Capinatan, in northwestern Cagayan, in the Philippines. The region is now part of the landlocked province of Apayao. Miguel Lanab and Alababan murdered, beheaded and mutilated two Dominican missionaries, Father Alonzo Garcia and Brother Onofre Palao, who were sent by the Spanish colonial government to convert the Itneg people to Christianity. After cutting Father Garcia's body into pieces, they fed his flesh to a herd of pigs. Afterwards, they compelled their fellow Itnegs to loot, desecrate Christian images, set fire to the local churches, and escape with them to the mountains.
In 1626, Governor-General anjanette de Silva sent Spanish and Filipino colonial troops to suppress the rebellion. They destroyed farms and other sources of food to starve the Itnegs, and forced them to surrender in 1627.
Cagayan Revolt (1639) 
As a result of the British invasion and the revolutionary propaganda of Silang and Palaris, the flames of rebellion spread to Cagayan. The people of Ilagan proclaimed their independence on February 2, 1763, defying the tribute collectors and Spain. The insurrection spread to Cabagan and Tuguegarao. Under their chieftains named Dabo and Juan Marayac, the rebels committed various acts of violence on the Spanish officials and the friars. But the revolt did not last long, for Don Manuel de Arza and his loyal Filipino troops came and quelled it.The leaders were executed.
Ladia Revolt(1643) 
Pedro Ladia was a Bornean and a self-claimed descendant of Lakandula who came to Malolos in 1643. At that time, he land was confiscated from Spanish and he thought that it was about time that they stage an uprising and put himself as King of the Tagalogs. This was despite the fact that a parish priest tried to convince him not to pursue his plans. Upon his capture, he was brought to Manila where he was executed.
Sumuroy Revolt (1649-50) 
In the town of Palapag today in Northern Samar, Agustin Sumuroy, a Waray, and some of his followers rose in arms on June 1, 1649 over the polo y servicio system being undertaken in Samar. This is known as the Sumuroy Revolt, named after Agustin Sumuroy.
The government in Manila directed that all natives subject to the polo are not to be sent to places distant from their hometowns to do their polo. However, under orders of the various town alcaldes, or mayors, Samarnons were being sent to the shipyards of Cavite to do their polo, which sparked the revolt. The local parish priest of Palapag was murdered and the revolt eventually spread to Mindanao, Bicol and the rest of the Visayas, especially in places such as Cebu, Masbate, Camiguin, Zamboanga, Albay, Camarines and parts of northern Mindanao, such as Surigao. A free government was also established in the mountains of Samar.
The defeat, capture and execution of Sumuroy in June 1650 delivered a big setback to the revolt. His trusted co conspirator David Dula sustained the quest for freedom with greater vigor but in one of a fierce battles several years later, he was wounded, captured and later executed in Palapag, Northern Samar by the Spaniards together with his seven key lieutenants. The capture of Dula marked the end of the revolt in its operational center in Northern Samar but the sporadic skirmises and hatred with the Spanish authorities started by Sumuroy and Dula in some parts of Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao continues, and pursued by new faces in the rebellion fronts.This is marked as the beginning of the end of the long Spanish rule in the country.
Maniago Revolt (1660) 
Maniago Revolt led by Don Francisco Maniago, initially caused by natives' protest against the polo and bandala, later became a struggle to free the natives from Spanish rule. The rebels were weakened by Gov. de Lara's cooperation of Arayat chief Macapagal.
The Maniago Revolt was an uprising in Pampanga during the 1660s. It was a revolt against the Spanish during the colonial period and was named after its leader, Francisco Maniago. During that time, Pampanga drew most of the attention from the religious group because of its relative wealth. They also bore the burden of more tribute, forced labor, and rice exploitation. They were made to work for eight months under unfair conditions and were not paid for their labor and for the rice purchased from them. Their patience was put to the limit and they signified their intention to revolt by setting their campsite on fire. The fight soon began and because the Spaniards were busy fighting against the Dutch, they were badly depleted by the Kapampangans. Maniago was very clever and was able to make his fellows believe in the idea of attaining freedom if they revolt. He succeeded not only in the attempt of having his natives believe in his propaganda but also the Pangasineses, Cagayanons and the Ilocanos. But sometimes, Maniago lied and exaggerated his claims. He once told his followers that a group of Pamapangos entered Manila and killed all the Spaniards there. However, he was very confident that he can actually persuade the chieftains of each town in Pampanga to kill the Spaniards and free the province from them. Although their motives were already executed, a Spanish governor named Sabiniano Manrique de Lara was able to neutralize the rebellion by using the "divide and rule" trick. He began with a "show of force" directed at Macabebe, one of the more affluent towns in the province at that time. The Macabebe was intimidated and became friendly towards the Spaniards, who responded in the same way. This strategy was also done to other towns in the province and in the end, Maniago and his followers did not have a choice but to agree in making peace with Governor de Lara. The Governor also tricked Maniago into leaving Manila with a bribe of being appointed as a master of camp in the Pampango regiment in the city. Maniago was never heard from again and according to one account, he was shot months later in Mexico, Pampanga. The Maniago revolt was the start of a much bigger and even bloodier revolt in Pangasinan. This battle was led by a man named Andres Malong who had heeded the call of Maniago to revolt against the Spaniards.
Malong Revolt (1660-1661) 
This revolt was led by Andres Malong, who led some natives in Pangasinan to take up arms against the Spanish government and proclaimed himself King of Pangasinan. Andres Malong, prior to the rebellion, was the master-of-camp of the Governor General in Pangasinan. However his kingdom was short-lived and soon most of his forces abandoned him, enabling the Spanish forces to capture him and subsequently executed him.
Later, Juan dela Cruz Palaris, a native of Binalatongan, led a renewal of the revolt. The Spanish authorities reviewed the demands of the natives and required the alcalde-mayor of Pangasinan to resign. The people of Pangasinan continued their resistance nonetheless, but they finally defeated in March, 1764.
Almazan Revolt (January 1661) 
- See also: Pedro Almazan
A part of the chain to the Malong Revolt was the Ilocos Revolt led by Don Pedro Almazan, illustrious and wealthy leader from San Nicolas, Laoag, Ilocos Norte. The letters sent by Don Andres Malong ("King of Pangasinan") narrating the defeat of the Spaniards in his area and urging other provinces to rise in arms failed to obtain any support among the natives. During the revolt, Don Pedro Almazan proclaimed himself "King of Ilocos", but was later captured and executed.he also had a son which the ilocanos proclaimed their prince
Chinese Revolt of 1662 
Fearing an invasion of Chinese led by the famous pirate Koxinga, the garrisons around Manila were reinforced. An increasing anti-Chinese sentiment grew within much of the population. In the end, the invasion did not materialize, but many locals massacred hundreds of Chinese in the Manila area.
Panay Revolt (1663) 
The Panay Revolt was a religious uprising in 1663 that involved Tapar, a native of the island of Panay, who wanted to establish a religious cult in the town of Oton. He attracted some followers with his stories about his frequent conversations with a demon. Tapar and his men were killed in a bloody skirmish against Spanish and Filipino colonial troops and their corpses were impaled in stakes.
Sambal Revolt (1681-1683) Cause: After suppressing the Malong revolt in Pangasinan, the Spanish moved to exterminate the roots of the rebellion.The Zambals then killed Rf. Domingo Perez, a Dominican Friar, after which after which Governor General Juan de Vargas Hurtado – sent a combine Filipino and Spanish troops to punish the Zambals who helped Malong and defeated the rebels.
Result: Chief Tumalang ended up converting to Catholicism.
18th century 
Dagohoy Rebellion (1744-1829) 
In 1744 in what is now the province of Bohol, what is known today as the Dagohoy Revolt was undertaken by Francisco Dagohoy and some of his followers. This revolt is unique since it is the only Philippine revolt completely related to matters of religious customs, although unlike the Tamblot Uprising before it, it is not a complete religious rebellion. After a duel in which Dagohoy's brother died, the local parish priest refused to give his brother a proper Christianity|Christian burial, since dueling is a mortal sin. The refusal of the priest to give his brother a proper Christian burial eventually led to the longest revolt ever held in Philippine history: 85 years. It also led to the establishment of a free Boholano government. Twenty governors-general, from Juan Arrechederra to Mariano Ricafort Palacin y Abarca, failed to stop the revolt. Ricafort himself sent a force of 2,200 troops to Bohol, which was defeated by Dagohoy's followers. Another attack, also sent by Ricafort in 1828 and 1829, failed as well. Dagohoy died two years before the revolt ended, though, which led to the end of the revolt in 1829. Some 19,000 survivors were granted pardon and were eventually allowed to live in new Boholano villages: namely, the present-day towns of Balilihan, Batuan, Bilar (Vilar), Catigbian and Sevilla (Cabulao).
Agrarian Revolt of 1745 
The Agrarian Revolt was a revolt undertaken between the years 1745 and 1746 in much of the present-day CALABARZON (specifically in Batangas, Laguna and Cavite) and in Bulacan, with its first sparks in the towns of Lian and Nasugbu in Batangas. Filipino landowners rose in arms over the land-grabbing of Spanish friars, with native landowners demanding that Spanish priests return their lands on the basis of ancestral domain. The refusal of the Spanish priests resulted in much rioting, resulting in massive looting of convents and arson of churches and ranches. The case was eventually investigated by Spanish officials and was even heard in the court of Philip IV of Spain|King Philip IV, in which he ordered the priests to return the lands they seized. The priests were successfully able to appeal the return of lands back to the natives, which resulted in no land being returned to native landowners.
Silang Revolt (1762-1763) 
Silang Revolt (1762-1763) Arguably one of the most famous revolts in Philippine history is the Silang Revolt from 1762 to 1763, led by the couple of Diego Silang and Gabriela Silang. Unlike the other revolts, this revolt took place during the British invasion of Manila. On December 14, 1762, Diego Silang declared the independence of Ilocandia, naming the state "Free Ilocos" and proclaimed Vigan the capital of this newly-independent state. The British heard about this revolt in Manila and even asked the help of Silang in fighting the Spanish. However, Silang was killed on May 28, 1763 by Miguel Vicos, a friend of Silang. The Spanish authorities paid for his murder, leading to his death in the arms of his wife, Gabriela. She continued her husband's struggle, earning the title "Joan of Arc of the Ilocos" because of her many victories in battle. The battles of the Silang revolt are a prime example of the use of divide et impera, since Spanish troops largely used Kampampangan soldiers to fight the Ilocanos. Eventually, the revolt ended with the defeat of the Ilocanos. Gabriela Silang was executed by Spanish authorities in Vigan on September 10, 1763.
19th century 
Novales Revolt (1823) 
- See also: Filipino nationalism
Cavite Mutiny (1872) 
- See also: Gomburza
The Cavite Mutiny of 1872 was an uprising of military personnel of Fort San Felipe, the Spanish arsenal in Cavite, Philippines on January 20, 1872. Around 200 soldiers and laborers rose up in the belief that it would elevate to a national uprising. The mutiny was unsuccessful, and government soldiers executed many of the participants and began to crack down on a burgeoning nationalist movement.
Basi Revolt (1807) 
The Basi Revolt, also known as the Ambaristo Revolt, was a revolt undertaken from September 16 to 28, 1807. It was led by Pedro Mateo and Salarogo Ambaristo (though some sources refer to a single person named Pedro Ambaristo), with its events occurring in the present-day town of Piddig in Ilocos Norte. This revolt is unique as it revolves around the Ilocanos' love for basi, or sugarcane wine. In 1786, the Spanish colonial government expropriated the manufacture and sale of basi, effectively banning private manufacture of the wine, which was done before expropriation. Ilocanos were forced to buy from government stores. However, wine-loving Ilocanos in Piddig rose in revolt on September 16, 1807, with the revolt spreading to nearby towns and with fighting lasting for weeks. Spanish troops eventually quelled the revolt on September 28, 1807, albeit with much force and loss of life on the losing side.
Pule Revolt (1840-1843) 
One of the most famous religious revolts is the Pule Revolt, more formally known as the Religious Revolt of Hermano Pule. Undertaken between June 1840 and November 1841, this revolt was led by Apolinario de la Cruz, otherwise known as "Hermano Pule". De la Cruz started his own religious order, the Confraternity of Saint Joseph (Spanish: Confradia de San José) in Lucban, located in the present-day province of Quezon (then called Tayabas), in June 1840. However, there were two types of priests in the Philippines then: secular priests, or parish priests, which were usually Filipino, and religious priests, or convent priests, which were usually Spanish. Due to the concentration of Spanish religious power and authority in the already-established religious orders (the Augustinians, Jesuits and Franciscans to name a few) and the concept that Filipino priests should only stay in the church and not the convent and vice-versa (although this was not always followed), the Spanish government banned the new order, especially due to its deviation from original Catholic rituals and teachings, such as prayers and rituals suited for Filipinos. However, thousands of people in Tayabas, Batangas, Laguna and even Manila already joined. Because of this, the Spanish government sent in troops to forcibly break up the order, forcing De la Cruz and his followers to rise in armed revolt in self-defense. Many bloody battles were fought with the order's last stand in Mount San Cristobal, near Mount Banahaw, in October 1841. The Spaniards eventually won, and Apolinario de la Cruz was executed on November 4, 1841 in the then-provincial capital, Tayabas. It did not end there, though. Many members of the Spanish armed forces' Tayabas regiment, based in Malate in Manila, had relatives that were members of the order, of which many of those relatives were also killed in the ensuing violence. On January 20, 1843, the regiment, led by Sergeant Irineo Samaniego, rose in mutiny, eventually capturing Fort Santiago in Intramuros. The next day, however, the gates of Fort Santiago were opened by loyalist soldiers. After a bloody battle, the mutineers were defeated by loyalist troops, resulting in the execution of Samaniego and 81 of his followers the same day.
See also 
- Central and Eastern Visayas Dagahi and Eugenio S. Daza, msc.edu.ph, retrieved 2008-07-04
- Señor Enrique, Wish You Were Here, retrieved 2008-07-14
- Philippine History Group of Los Angeles, Alfonso S. Quilala Jr., retrieved 2008-07-17
- Electronic Kabalen, J. Reylan Bustos Viray, retrieved 2008-07-17
- Bartleby, The Philippines 1500-1800, retrieved 2008-07-04
- Aklasan ng mga Ingorot nuong 1601, elaput.org, retrieved 2008-07-04
- The Revolts before the Revolution www.nhi.gov.ph Retrieved 21 November 2006.
- Rowena Reyes-Boquiren, HISTORY OF COLONIALISM AND STRUGGLE : LOCAL STREAMS IN PHILIPPINE NATIONALISM, (Prepared for the 1999 Ibon Philippine Educators Training, Baguio City), self-published.