Philippine senatorial elections

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The Senate, when it existed, met at the Old Congress Building, Manila from 1918 to 1941, from 1949 to 1973, and from 1987 to 1997.
The building that the Senate shares with the Government Service Insurance System since 1997.

Elections to the Senate of the Philippines is done via plurality-at-large voting; a voter can vote for up to twelve candidates, with the twelve candidates with the highest amount of votes being elected. The 24-member Senate uses staggered elections, with only one-half of its members up for election at any given time, except for special elections, which are always held concurrently with regularly scheduled elections.[1]

Manner of choosing candidates[edit]

With the advent of the nominal multi-party system in 1987, political parties have been able to muster enough candidates to fill their 12-person ticket. This means they have to join coalitions or alliances in order to present a full slate. If a slate is still not complete, guest candidates may be invited, even from rival slates. A guest candidate may not be compelled to join the campaign rallies of the slate that invited him/her. A party may even not include their entire ticket to a coalition slate, or assign their candidates to competing slates. A candidate may defect from one slate to another or be unaffiliated with any slate while the campaign is ongoing. The Commission on Elections uses the names of the political parties on the ballot.

In Third Republic elections under the nominal two-party system, the Liberal Party and the Nacionalista Party often presented complete 8-person tickets; a party may even exceed the 8-person slate due to perceived popularity.

Once elected, the parties involved in the different slates may form alliances with one another totally different from the alliances prior to the election.

Manner of election[edit]

1916 to 1935[edit]

Map of the senatorial districts.

From 1916 to 1934, the country was divided into 12 senatorial districts. Eleven of these districts elected two senators each. In 1916, each district elected two senators (plurality-at-large): one was to serve a six-year term, the other a three-year term. On each election thereafter, one seat per district was up (first past the post). The senators from the 12th district were appointed by the American governor-general for no fixed term.[2]

In 1935, the electorate approved in a plebiscite a new constitution that abolished the Senate and instituted a unicameral National Assembly of the Philippines. The members of the Constitutional Convention originally wanted bicameralism but could not agree on how the senators shall be elected: via the senatorial districts or being nationally elected.[3]

1941 to 1949[edit]

The electorate in 1940 approved in a plebiscite amendments to the constitution that restored the bicameral Congress of the Philippines, including the Senate. Elections for the Senate were held on every second Monday of November of every odd-numbered year; however, the old senatorial districts were not used anymore; instead, the 24-member Senate was to be elected on a nationwide at-large basis.[3] As the first election in the new setup, the voters in the 1941 election voted for 24 senators. However, they were also given the option of writing the party's name on the ballot, wherein all of the candidates of the party would receive votes. With the 24 candidates with the most number of votes winning in the election, the ruling Nacionalista Party won all 24 seats in a landslide victory. The winners included Rafael Martinez, who replaced Norberto Romualdez, who died the day before the election; Martinez won because of voters who had selected the party, rather than specifying a particular candidate.[4]

Due to World War II, Congress was not able to convene until June 1945. President Sergio Osmeña called for special sessions to convene the 1st Congress of the Commonwealth of the Philippines until elections could be organized. Originally, to observe the staggered terms, the eight candidates with the most votes were to serve for eight years, the next eight for four years, and still the next eight for two years. However, several members had died and others were disqualified because they were charged with collaboration with the Japanese, so the Senate conducted a lottery to determine which senators would serve until 1946 and which would serve until 1947.[5] In the 1946 election, voters elected 16 senators; the first eight candidates with the highest amount of votes were to serve until 1951, the next eight were to serve until 1949.[2]

1951 to 1971[edit]

The Senate chamber at the Old Congress building: Cipriano P. Primicias, Sr., far left, debates Quintín Paredes, far right. In the center are, from left to right, Justiniano Montano, Mariano Jesús Cuenco, Enrique B. Magalona, and Francisco Delgado. In the foreground is Edmundo Cea.

Electoral reform enacted in 1951 eliminated block voting, which had given voters the option of writing the party's name on the ballot. In the 1951 election, voters voted for eight senators for the first time and each voter had to write at most eight names for senator (writing the party's name would result in a spoiled vote). Noting that after the elimination of block voting, many people voted for a split ticket, political scientist David Wurfel has remarked that "The electoral reform of 1951 was thus one of the most important institutional changes in the postwar Philippines, making the life of the opposition easier."[4]

In September 1973, President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law and assumed legislative powers. In the 1973 plebiscite, the electorate approved a new constitution that abolished Congress and replaced it with a unicameral National Assembly, which would ultimately be the Batasang Pambansa (parliament).[2]

1987 to present[edit]

The GSIS building: The Senate session hall.

Marcos was overthrown as a result of the 1986 People Power Revolution. The new president, Corazon Aquino, appointed a Constitutional Commission to write a new constitution. The electorate approved the constitution in 1987, restoring the bicameral Congress. Instead of electing 8 senators every two years, the new constitution provided that 12 senators would be elected every three years. As part of the transitory provisions, the voters elected 24 senators in the 1987 election, to serve until 1992. In the 1992 election, the voters still voted for 24 candidates, but the first 12 candidates with the most number of votes were to serve until 1998, while the next 12 were to serve only until 1995. Thereafter, 12 candidates are elected every second Sunday of May every third year since 1995.[6]

Summary[edit]

Election results by number of seats from 1916 to the present. Note that some senators may switch to another party mid-term.
Election results by total votes from 1946 to the present.
Elections Elected Seats per
district
Districts Total
seats
1916 22 2 11 24
1919 11 1 11 24
1922 12 1 12 24
1925 12 1 12 24
1928 12 1 12 24
1931 12 1 12 24
1934 12 1 12 24
Senate abolished from 1935 to 1941. Senators elected in 1941 will not serve until 1945.
1941 241 24 1 24
1946 162 16 1 24
1947 8 8 1 24
1949 8 8 1 24
1951 93 9 1 24
1953 8 8 1 24
1955 94 9 1 24
1957 8 8 1 24
1959 8 8 1 24
1961 8 8 1 24
1963 8 8 1 24
1965 8 8 1 24
1967 8 8 1 24
1969 8 8 1 24
1971 8 8 1 24
Senate abolished from 1972 to 1987.
1987 24 24 1 24
1992 245 24 1 24
1995 12 12 1 24
1998 12 12 1 24
2001 136 13 1 24
2004 12 12 1 24
2007 12 12 1 24
2010 12 12 1 24
2013 12 12 1 24
^1 Out of the 24 senators-elect, the first eight candidates with the highest number of votes will serve for six years, the next eight for four years, and the next eight for two years. However, this was not followed due to the intervention of World War II.
^2 Out of the 16 senators-elect, the first eight candidates with the highest number of votes will serve for six years, and the next eight for four years.
^3 A special election for the seat vacated by Fernando Lopez who was elected vice president on 1949 was held.
^4 A special election for the seat vacated by Carlos P. Garcia who was elected vice president on 1953 was held.
^5 Out of the 24 senators-elect, the first twelve candidates with the highest number of votes will serve for six years, and the next twelve for three years.
^6 Teofisto Guingona, Jr. was appointed vice president on 2001; the thirteenth-placed candidate in the election will serve for Guingona's unexpired term of three years.[7]

List of results[edit]

Senatorial districts era[edit]

Election Nacionalista Progresista Democrata Collectivista Pro-
Independencia
Consolidato Independents Total
1916 22 1 1 24
1919 21 1 2 24
1922 12 5 3 4 24
1925 5 8 3 6 2 24
1928 24 0 3 24
1931 6 4 2 12
1934 6 17 1 24

At-large era[edit]

Since the at-large era, a high-scoring winner can be seen as a strong contender for a future presidential or vice-presidential bid.[1]

In this table, the "administration" ticket is the ticket supported by the sitting president. In 1992, Corazon Aquino who was nominally supporting the LDP, supported the presidential candidacy of Fidel V. Ramos of Lakas, making the "administration ticket" ambiguous.

  • Key: Darker shade was a midterm election. Boldface denotes the party that won at least majority of the seats contested.
Election Topnotcher Party Future election to higher office result Result (Party/coalition totals)[8]
Administration ticket Primary opposition ticket Others
1941 Claro M. Recto Nacionalista Lost 1957 presidential election 24 Nacionalistas
1946 Vicente Francisco Nacionalista (Liberal wing) Lost 1949 vice presidential election 7 Nacionalistas 8 Nacionalistas (Liberal wing) 1 Popular Front
1947 Lorenzo Tañada Liberal Lost 1957 vice presidential election 6 Liberals 2 Nacionalistas
1949 Quintin Paredes Liberal 8 Liberals
1951 José P. Laurel Nacionalista 9 Nacionalistas
1953 Fernando Lopez Democratic Won 1965 vice presidential election 5 Nacionalistas 2 Democrats
1 Citizens'
1955 Pacita Madrigal-Warns Nacionalista 9 Nacionalistas
1957 Gil Puyat Nacionalista 6 Nacionalistas 2 Liberals
1959 Ferdinand Marcos Liberal Won 1965 presidential election
Won 1969 presidential election
Won 1981 presidential election
Victory at the 1986 presidential election disputed
5 Nacionalistas 2 Liberals 1 NCP
1961 Raul Manglapus Progressive 2 Nacionalistas 4 Liberals 2 Progressives
1963 Gerardo Roxas Liberal Lost 1965 vice presidential election 4 Liberals 4 Nacionalistas
1965 Jovito Salonga Liberal Lost 1992 presidential election 2 Liberals 5 Nacionalistas 1 NCP
1967 Jose Roy Nacionalista 6 Nacionalistas 1 Liberal 1 independent
1969 Arturo Tolentino Nacionalista Victory at the 1986 vice presidential election disputed 6 Nacionalistas 2 Liberals
1971 Jovito Salonga Liberal (see 1965) 3 Nacionalistas 5 Liberals
1987 Jovito Salonga LABAN (see 1965) 22 LABAN 2 GAD
1992 Vicente Sotto III LDP 16 LDP 5 NPC 2 Lakas
1 Liberal/PDP-Laban
1995 Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo LDP Won 1998 vice presidential election
Won 2004 presidential election
9 Lakas-Laban 3 NPC
1998 Loren Legarda Lakas-NUCD-UMDP Lost 2004 vice presidential election
Lost 2010 vice presidential election
5 Lakas 7 LAMMP
2001 Noli de Castro Independent Won 2004 vice presidential election 8 PPC 4 Puwersa ng Masa 1 independent
2004 Mar Roxas Liberal Lost 2010 vice presidential election 7 K-4 5 KNP
2007 Loren Legarda NPC (see 1998) 3 TEAM Unity 7 GO 2 independents
2010 Bong Revilla Lakas-Kampi TBD 2 Lakas-Kampi 3 Liberals 2 Nacionalistas
2 PMP
1 PRP
1 NPC
1 independent
2013 Grace Poe Independent TBD 9 Team PNoy 3 UNA

Latest elections[edit]

2013[edit]

e • d Summary of the May 13, 2013 Philippine Senate election results
# Candidate Coalition Party Votes % Swing[c 1]
1 Grace Poe-Llamanzares Team PNoy[c 2] Independent 20,337,327 50.66%
2 Loren Legarda Team PNoy[c 2] NPC 18,661,196 46.49% Decrease 16.24%
3 Alan Peter Cayetano Team PNoy[c 3] Nacionalista 17,580,813 43.79% Increase 3.83%
4 Francis Escudero Team PNoy[c 2] Independent 17,502,358 43.60% Decrease 18.32%
5 Nancy Binay UNA UNA 16,812,148 41.88%
6 Sonny Angara Team PNoy LDP 16,005,564 39.87%
7 Bam Aquino Team PNoy Liberal 15,534,465 38.70%
8 Aquilino Pimentel III Team PNoy[c 3] PDP-Laban 14,725,114 36.68% Decrease 0.56%
9 Antonio Trillanes IV Team PNoy Nacionalista 14,127,722 35.19% Decrease 2.74%
10 Cynthia Villar Team PNoy[c 3] Nacionalista 13,822,854 34.43%
11 JV Ejercito UNA UNA 13,684,736 34.09%
12 Gregorio Honasan UNA UNA 13,211,424 32.91% Decrease 6.58%
13 Richard Gordon UNA UNA 12,501,991 31.14%
14 Juan Miguel Zubiri UNA UNA 11,821,134 29.45% Decrease 7.86%
15 Juan Ponce Enrile, Jr. UNA NPC 11,543,024 28.75%
16 Ramon Magsaysay, Jr. Team PNoy[c 3] Liberal 11,356,739 28.29%
17 Risa Hontiveros-Baraquel Team PNoy Akbayan 10,944,843 27.26%
18 Edward Hagedorn Not affiliated Independent 8,412,840 20.96%
19 Eddie Villanueva Not affiliated Bangon Pilipinas 6,932,985 17.27%
20 Jamby Madrigal Team PNoy[c 3] Liberal 6,787,744 16.91%
21 Mitos Magsaysay UNA UNA 5,620,429 14.00%
22 Teodoro Casiño Makabayan Makabayan 4,295,151 10.70%
23 Ernesto Maceda UNA UNA 3,453,121 8.60%
24 Tingting Cojuangco UNA UNA 3,152,939 7.85%
25 Samson Alcantara Not affiliated Social Justice Society 1,240,104 3.09%
26 John Carlos de los Reyes Not affiliated Ang Kapatiran 1,238,280 3.08%
27 Greco Belgica Not affiliated DPP 1,128,924 2.81%
28 Ricardo Penson Not affiliated Independent 1,040,293 2.59%
29 Ramon Montaño Not affiliated Independent 1,040,131 2.59%
30 Rizalito David Not affiliated Ang Kapatiran 1,035,971 2.58%
31 Christian Señeres Not affiliated DPP 706,198 1.76%
32 Marwil Llasos Not affiliated Ang Kapatiran 701,390 1.75%
33 Baldomero Falcone Not affiliated DPP 665,845 1.66%
Total turnout 40,144,207 75.77% Increase 1.43%
Total votes 297,625,797 N/A
Registered voters, including overseas voters 52,982,173 100.00% Increase 3.24%
Reference: Commission on Elections sitting as the National Board of Canvassers.[9]
  1. ^ Change in percentage point as compared from the 2007; other candidates may had joined in the 2010 election.
  2. ^ a b c Guest candidate of Team PNoy and Makabayan.
  3. ^ a b c d e Guest candidate of Makabayan.

2010[edit]

e • d Summary of the May 10, 2010 Philippine Senate election results
Rank Candidate Party Votes % Swing[s 1]
1. Bong Revilla Lakas-Kampi 19,513,521 51.15% Increase 2.97%
2. Jinggoy Estrada PMP 18,925,925 49.61% Increase 15.79%
3. Miriam Defensor Santiago PRP 17,344,742 45.47% Increase 8.31%
4. Franklin Drilon Liberal 15,871,117 41.60%
5. Juan Ponce Enrile PMP 15,665,618 41.06% Increase 6.94%
6. Pia Cayetano Nacionalista 13,679,511 35.86% Decrease 2.38%
7. Ferdinand Marcos, Jr. Nacionalista 13,169,634 34.52%
8. Ralph Recto Liberal 12,436,960 32.60%
9. Tito Sotto NPC 11,891,711 31.17%
10. Sergio Osmeña III Independent 11,656,668 30.56%
11. Lito Lapid Lakas-Kampi 11,025,805 28.90% Decrease 4.55%
12. Teofisto Guingona III Liberal 10,277,352 26.94%
13. Risa Hontiveros-Baraquel Liberal 9,106,112 23.87%
14. Ruffy Biazon Liberal 8,626,514 22.61%
15. Joey de Venecia PMP 8,375,043 21.95%
16. Gilbert Remulla Nacionalista 7,454,557 19.54%
17. Danilo Lim Independent 7,302,784 19.14%
18. Sonia Roco Liberal 6,774,010 17.76%
19. Ariel Querubin Nacionalista 6,547,925 17.16%
20. Gwendolyn Pimentel PDP-Laban 6,394,347 16.76%
21. Nereus Acosta Liberal 5,921,111 15.52%
22. Alexander Lacson Liberal 5,242,594 13.74%
23. Adel Tamano Nacionalista 4,059,748 10.64%
24. Emilio Mario Osmeña PROMDI 3,980,370 10.43%
25. Liza Maza Independent 3,855,800 10.11%
26. Satur Ocampo Bayan Muna 3,539,345 9.28%
27. Francisco Tatad GAD 3,331,083 8.73% Decrease 8.71%
28. Ramon Mitra III Nacionalista 2,744,090 7.19%
29. Apolinario Lozada PMP 2,730,279 7.16%
30. Rey Langit Lakas-Kampi 2,694,213 7.06%
31. Silvestre Bello III Lakas-Kampi 2,468,276 6.47%
32. Yasmin Lao Liberal 2,081,895 5.46%
33. Imelda Papin Bangon Pilipinas 1,972,667 5.17%
34. Susan Ople Nacionalista 1,930,038 5.06%
35. Martin Bautista Liberal 1,890,152 4.95%
36. Rodolfo Plaza NPC 1,517,905 3.98%
37. JV Larion Bautista PMP 1,415,117 3.71%
38. Ramon Guico Lakas-Kampi 1,264,982 3.32%
39. Raul Lambino Lakas-Kampi 1,156,294 3.03%
40. Hector Villanueva KBL 979,708 2.57%
41. Ramoncito Ocampo Bangon Pilipinas 944,725 2.48%
42. Kata Inocencio Bangon Pilipinas 888,771 2.33%
43. Jovito Palparan, Jr. Independent 825,208 2.16%
44. Alex Tinsay Bangon Pilipinas 728,339 1.91%
45. Zafrullah Alonto Bangon Pilipinas 712,628 1.87%
46. Reginald Tamayo Ang Kapatiran 680,211 1.78%
47. Nanette Espinosa KBL 607,569 1.59%
48. Regalado Maambong KBL 545,967 1.43%
49. Shariff Ibrahim Albani KBL 508,558 1.33%
50. Rizalito David Ang Kapatiran 504,259 1.32%
51. Israel Virgines Bangon Pilipinas 455,332 1.19%
52. Zosimo Paredes Bangon Pilipinas 437,439 1.15%
53. Adrian Sison Ang Kapatiran 418,055 1.10%
54. Reynaldo Princesa Independent 364,245 0.95%
55. Jo Aurea Imbong Ang Kapatiran 362,457 0.95%
56. Adz Nikabulin Bangon Pilipinas 346,848 0.91%
57. Henry Caunan PDP-Laban 240,676 0.63%
58. Manuel Valdehuesa, Jr. Ang Kapatiran 201,118 0.53%
59. Hector Tarrazona Ang Kapatiran 168,386 0.44%
60. Ma. Gracia Riñoza-Plazo Ang Kapatiran 151,755 0.40%
61. Alma Lood KBL 128,045 0.34%
Total turnout 38,149,371 74.34% Increase 1.24%
Total votes 297,036,114 N/A Increase 14.42%
Registered voters 51,317,073 100.00% Increase 12.56%
  1. ^ Change in percentage point as compared from the 2004; other candidates may had joined in the 2007 election.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b John Gray Geer, ed. (2004). Public opinion and polling around the world: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO, Inc. p. 690. ISBN 1-57607-911-2. 
  2. ^ a b c "History of the Senate". Official website of the Senate. Retrieved 2010-12-31. 
  3. ^ a b Quezon, Manuel III (2009-06-15). "Reviewing the prewar plebiscites". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2011-01-14. 
  4. ^ a b Quezon, Manuel III (2006-11-20). "Block voting". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2010-12-31. 
  5. ^ Quezon, Manuel III (2008-04-10). "Senate the victim of a design flaw". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2011-01-13. 
  6. ^ R., Lazo (2009). Philippine governance and the 1987 constitution. Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 978-971-23-4546-3. 
  7. ^ Araneta, Sandy (2001-07-24). "It’s final: Honasan is No. 13". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2011-01-13. 
  8. ^ Dieter Nohlen, Florian Grotz, Christof Hartmann, ed. (2001). Elections in Asia and the Pacific: South East Asia, East Asia, and the South Pacific. Oxford University Press. pp. 223–224. ISBN 978-0-19-924959-6. 
  9. ^ "NBOC Resolution No. 0010-13". Commission on Elections en banc sitting as the National Board of Canvassers. 2013-06-05. Retrieved 2013-06-09.