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A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. This person usually has extensive knowledge and uses it to solve philosophical problems. Philosophy is concerned with studying the fields of aesthetics, ethics, epistemology, logic, metaphysics, as well as social philosophy and political philosophy.
A generally accepted interpretation in academia is that a philosopher is one who has attained a Ph.D. in philosophy, teaches philosophy, and has published literature in a field of philosophy or is widely accepted by other philosophers as a philosopher.
Philosophers usually cover a breadth of topics within philosophy in their undergraduate education, and then proceed to specialize in topics of their own choice at the graduate level. In some universities, a qualifying exam serves to test both the breadth and depth of a student's understanding of philosophy; the students who pass are permitted to work on a doctoral dissertation.
Though it is true that philosophy finds diverse applications in many areas of research, a philosopher does not determine the value of an idea by the diversity of its applications. Philosophy is interesting in its own right, and a substantial minority of philosophers investigate the many and varied interpretations of ideas studied in philosophy itself.
Differences with scientists
Philosophy differs from natural science in that scientists subject truth claims to tests by empirical experiments, while philosophical propositions may be tested by thought experiments and are conclusions of philosophical arguments.
Women in Philosophy
While the majority of philosophers are male, there have been some demographic changes since the 20th century. Some prominent female philosophers are Judith Butler, Marilyn McCord Adams, Patricia Churchland, Ayn Rand, and Susan Haack.
Prizes in Philosophy
Quotations about Philosophers
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The following are quotations about Philosophers, or by Philosophers.
- "The philosopher as an analyst is not concerned with the physical properties of things, but only with the way in which we speak about them." -- Alfred Jules Ayer in Language, Truth, and Logic (1936).
- "The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways. The point, however, is to change it." -- Karl Marx, Theses on Feuerbach, thesis 11.
- "Philosophers, for the most part, are constitutionally timid, and dislike the unexpected. Few of them would be genuinely happy as pirates or burglars." -- Bertrand Russell, Unpopular Essays, Chapter IV, Part iii, p. 74.
- "It is perfectly true, as the philosophers say, that life must be understood backwards. But they forget the other proposition, that it must be lived forwards." --Søren Kierkegaard, Journals and Papers (1843)
Some notable Philosophers include:
- Zeno of Elea
- Thomas Aquinas
- Jacques Derrida
- René Descartes
- Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
- David Hume
- Immanuel Kant
- Søren Kierkegaard
- Friedrich Nietzsche
- Willard Van Orman Quine
- Jean-Paul Sartre
- Arthur Schopenhauer
- Ludwig Wittgenstein
- Francis Bacon
- George Berkeley
- Benedict de Spinoza
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
- Karl Popper
- Bertrand Russell
- Alfred North Whitehead
- Gottlob Frege
- David Kellogg Lewis
- John Venn
- John Stuart Mill
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