Philosophical logic refers to those areas of philosophy in which recognized methods of logic have traditionally been used to solve or advance the discussion of philosophical problems. Sybil Wolfram lists the study of argument, meaning, and truth in particular, while Colin McGinn includes identity, existence, predication, necessity, and truth as the main topics of his book on the subject. In the same vein, philosophical logic is often understood to address extensions and alternatives to classical logic—the so-called non-classical logics. Texts such as John P. Burgess' Philosophical Logic, the Blackwell Companion to Philosophical Logic, or the multi-volume Handbook of Philosophical Logic (edited by Dov M. Gabbay and Franz Guenthner) emphasize this latter usage, addressing both the formal aspects of these topics and their applications to associated philosophical problems.
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