Philosophy, Politics and Economics
Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE) is a popular interdisciplinary undergraduate/post-graduate degree which combines study from the three disciplines. The first institution to offer degrees in PPE was the University of Oxford and this particular course has produced a significant number of notable graduates such as Tony Abbott, the current Prime Minister of Australia, David Cameron, the current Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and Ed Miliband, the current Leader of the Opposition. In the 1980s, the University of York went on to establish its own PPE degree based upon the Oxford model; the University of Warwick, the University of Manchester, and other British universities later followed. According to the BBC, it "dominate[s] public life" (in the UK). It is now offered at several other leading colleges and universities around the world.
PPE was established at the University of Oxford in the 1920s, as a modern alternative to Classics (known as Greats at Oxford) because it was thought that a course in Philosophy and Ancient History was no longer relevant for those entering the civil service. It was thus initially known as Modern Greats. Christopher Stray has pointed to the course as one reason for the gradual decline of the study of classics, as classicists in political life began to be edged out by those who had studied the Modern Greats.
Dario Castiglione and Iain Hampsher-Monk have described the course as being fundamental to the development of political thought in the UK, since it established a connection between politics and philosophy. Previously at Oxford, and for some time subsequently at Cambridge, politics had been taught only as a branch of modern history.
The programme is rooted in the view that to understand social phenomena one must approach them from several complementary disciplinary directions and analytical frameworks. In this regard, the study of philosophy is considered important because it both equips students with meta-tools such as the ability to reason rigorously and logically, and facilitates ethical reflection. The study of politics is considered necessary because it acquaints students with the institutions that govern society and help solve collective action problems. Finally, studying economics is seen as vital in the modern world because political decisions often concern economic matters, and government decisions are often influenced by economic events. The vast majority of students at Oxford drop one of the three subjects for the second and third years of their course. Oxford now has more than 600 undergraduates studying the subject, admitting over 200 each year.
Oxford PPE graduate Nick Cohen and former tutor Iain McLean consider the course's breadth important to its appeal, especially "because British society values generalists over specialists".
Geoffrey Evans an Oxford fellow in politics and a senior tutor critiques that the Oxford course's success and consequent over-demand is a self-perpetuating feature of those in front of and behind the scenes in national administration, in stating "all in all, it's how the class system works". In the current economic system he bemoans the unavoidable inequalities besetting admissions and thereby enviable recruitment prospects of successful graduates. The argument itself intended as a paternalistic ethical reflection on how governments and peoples can perpetuate social stratification.
List of universities offering PPE
United Kingdom and Ireland
- Goldsmiths, University of London
- Durham University
- Keele University
- Kingston University
- Lancaster University
- Open University
- Swansea University
- Queen's University Belfast
- University College London (MA Politics, Philosophy and Economics of Health)
- The Open University (Politics, Philosophy and Economics)
- University of Dublin 
- University of East Anglia
- University of Essex
- University of Exeter
- University of Hull
- University of Leeds
- University of Manchester
- University of Oxford
- University of Reading
- University of Stirling
- University of Sussex
- University of Warwick
- University of York
- National University of Ireland, Maynooth
- Royal Holloway, University of London
- University of British Columbia-Okanagan
- University of Western Ontario
- Wilfrid Laurier University
- Carroll University
- Carnegie Mellon University (Under the designation "Ethics, History, and Public Policy")
- Claremont McKenna College
- Denison University
- Duke University (certificate)
- Eastern Oregon University
- Emory & Henry College
- Juniata College
- The King's College (New York)
- Mercer University
- Minnesota State University, Mankato
- Murphy Institute(Tulane University, under the designation "Political Economy")
- Pomona College
- University of Alabama at Birmingham
- University of Akron
- University of Arizona (under the designation "PPEL" - with law)
- University of Iowa (Under the designation "Ethics & Public Policy")
- The University of Michigan (Honors Program)
- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Minor)
- University of Notre Dame (minor)
- University of Pennsylvania
- University of Pittsburgh
- University of Richmond (under the designation "PPEL" - with law)
- Taylor University
- University of Washington Tacoma
- Wesleyan University
- Western Washington University
- Wheeling Jesuit University (under the designation Political & Economic Philosophy)
- Yale University (under the designation "Ethics, Politics and Economics," abbreviated "EP&E")
South Africa, India, Australia and New Zealand
- Amity University, India (The first and only university in India to provide a degree in "Philosophy, politics and economics" abbreviated as "PPE")
- Australian National University (program started in 2012, after the popularity of La Trobe's PPE course)
- Birla Institute of Technology and Science,India
- La Trobe University, Australia (The first official PPE program in Australia, designed for high-achieving school leavers, commenced in 2011)
- Stellenbosch University
- University of Cape Town
- University of KwaZulu-Natal
- University of South Africa 
- University of Otago, New Zealand
- American University of Paris
- Institutes for Political Studies also known as Sciences Po
- Bifrost University
- Free University of Bolzano
- Charles University in Prague
- Alliance 4 Universities (Charles III of Madrid, Autonomous of Madrid, Autonomous of Barcelona and Pompeu Fabra)
- Istanbul Bilgi University (Political Economy and Social Philosophy)
- Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali Guido Carli, Rome (Italy)
- Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
- Lund University
- University of Bayreuth
- University of Bern (under the designation of MA "Political, Legal and Economic Philosophy" abbreviated "PLEP")
- University of Zurich (under the designation of MA "Economic and Political Philosophy")
- University of Graz (under the designation of MA "Political, Economic and Legal Philosophy" abbreviated "PELP")
- University of Hamburg (under the designation of MA "Politics, Economics and Philosophy" abbreviated "PEP")
- University of Lucerne
- University of Saarland, Germany
- University of Tromsø
- Witten/Herdecke University (Bachelor and Master), Germany
Middle East and Asia
- Tel Aviv University (under the designation "PPEL" - with law), Israel
- Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
- Obafemi Awolowo University
- Peking University
- Sogang University
- Rangsit University, Thailand
- Thammasat University, Thailand
- Waseda University
- Yale-NUS, Singapore
- Notable people with PPE degrees from Oxford
- Greats degree course
- Philosophy and economics
- Kenny, Mark (November 25, 2013). "Tony Abbott's Oxford transcript released". Sydney Morning Herald.
- Kelly, Jon (2010-08-31). "Why does PPE rule Britain?". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
-  "Balliol was the birthplace of the modern degree of PPE in the 1920s. A.D. Lindsay, who subsequently became the Master of the College, played a key role in the establishment of the degree and Balliol has long remained a major college for the study of PPE, and PPE has long been a major subject within Balliol."
- "History of Philosophy at Oxford – Faculty of Philosophy". Philosophy.ox.ac.uk. 2009-11-19. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- Christopher Stray, Classics Transformed: Schools, Universities, and Society in England, 1830–1960. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998. Pp. xiv, 336. $85. ISBN 0-19-815013-X.
- Dario Castiglione and Iain Hampsher-Monk, The history of political thought in national context, Cambridge University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-521-78234-1
- PPE, Oxford University - details
- "BA (Hons) Politics, Philosophy & Economics, Goldsmiths, University of London". gold.ac.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-08.
- "Philosophy, Politics and Economics - Durham University". Dur.ac.uk. 2012-12-11. Retrieved 2013-09-24.
- "Philosophy, Politics, Economics MA". kingston.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- "Philosophy, Politics and Economics BA Hons". Lancaster University. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "PPE at the Open University comes under the Faculty of Social Sciences". .open.ac.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- [dead link]
- "Queen's University Belfast | BA Politics, Philosophy and Economics (PPE)". Qub.ac.uk. 2010-03-03. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- Q45 - BA (Honours) Politics, Philosophy and Economics - Open University Degree. .open.ac.uk (2012-10-16). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
- Course - A-Z All - Undergraduate - Courses : Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Ireland. Tcd.ie (2012-11-19). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
- "University of Essex :: Course Finder :: BA Philosophy, Politics and Economics". Essex.ac.uk. 2010-05-14. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "BA Politics, Philosophy and Economics". BA Politics, Philosophy and Economics. exeter.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "BA (Hons) Politics, Philosophy and Economics (PPE)". University of Hull. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
- "Politics, Philosophy and Economics (3 Years) [BA]". leeds.ac.uk. Retrieved 2014-04-13.
- "Politics, Philosophy and Economics (3 Years) [BA]". Manchester.ac.uk. Retrieved 2013-09-20.
- "Philosophy, Politics and Economics – University of Oxford". Ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "Sussex PPE". sussex.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-03-05.
- "PPE at Warwick". .warwick.ac.uk. 2009-11-09. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "The PEP School at York". York.ac.uk. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "Philosophy, Politics, and Economics". Philosophy NUIM. Retrieved 2012-12-04.
- "BA/BSc Politics, Philosophy and Economics (PPE)". Rhul.ac.uk. Retrieved 2012-12-04.
- "Philosophy, Politics, and Economics (PPE) – Bachelor of Arts Programs – Faculty of Arts and Sciences – Faculties, Schools, and Colleges – Okanagan Calendar 2010/11 – UBC Student Services". Okanagan.students.ubc.ca. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "The University of Western Ontario : THE POLITICS, PHILOSOPHY, AND ECONOMICS (PPE) PROGRAM". Westerncalendar.uwo.ca. Retrieved 2010-06-02.[dead link]
- "Wilfrid Laurier University – Student Recruitment Office – Academic Programs – Faculty of Arts – Politics, Philosophy and Economics (PPE)". Wlu.ca. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "Carroll University :: Philosophy, Politics and Economics :: The Program". Carrollu.edu. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "Welcome to EHPP - Ethics, History, & Public Policy - Carnegie Mellon University". cmu.edu. Retrieved 2013-08-02.
- "Ppe At Cmc". Claremontmckenna.edu. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "About Philosophy, Politics and Economics – Denison University". Denison.edu. 2008-06-09. Retrieved 2010-06-02.[dead link]
- "Political Science: PPE Certificate". Polisci.duke.edu. Retrieved 2013-09-03.
- "EOU's General Catalog". Eou.edu. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "Eastern Oregon University". Eou.edu. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "Juniata College Catalog". Juniata.edu. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "The King's College - Politics, Philosophy and Economics". Tkc.edu. Retrieved 2012-12-04.
- "College of Liberal Arts: Philosophy, Politics and Economics". Mercer University. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- "Department of Philosophy – Minnesota State University, Mankato". Mnsu.edu. 2006-10-11. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- [dead link]
- "The PPE Concentration". Dept. of Philosophy, University of Alabama at Birmingham. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
- "Philosophy, Political Science, Economy Curriculum". Academic Advising Center, University of Akron. Retrieved 2010-02-19.
- "Philosophy, Politics, Economics, and Law". U.arizona.edu. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
- "Ethics & Public Policy". uiowa.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-16.
- "College of Literature, Science, and the Arts: Students :: PPE Concentration". lsa.umich.edu. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
- Philosophy, Politics & Economics. Ppe.unc.edu. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
- "Department of Philosophy // University of Notre Dame". Philosophy.nd.edu. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "PPE at The University of Pennsylvania". Sas.upenn.edu. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "Politics and Philosophy Major". honorscollege.pitt.edu. Retrieved 2010-09-08.
- [dead link]
- "Wesleyan University – College of Social Studies". Wesleyan.edu. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
- "Politics/Philosophy/Economics, BA". Wwu.edu. Retrieved 2013-06-25.
- "Program in Ethics, Politics and Economics | Yale University". Yale.edu. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "AMITY SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS". Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- "ANU - STUDY 2012 - Bachelor of Philosophy, Politics and Economics". ANU. Retrieved 2012-03-25.
- "Bachelor of Politics, Philosophy and Economics - La Trobe University". La Trobe University. 2010-05-06. Retrieved 2013-09-20.
- "Philosophy, Politics & Economics (PPE) Programme". School of Economics, University of Cape Town. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
- "University of KwaZulu-Natal – Faculties – Humanities, Development and Social Sciences". Ukzn.ac.za. Retrieved 2010-06-02.[dead link]
- Qualification stream: Philosophy, Politics and Economics, unisa.ac.za. Accessed 2014-06-19.
- "Háskólinn á Bifröst – BA in PPE". Bifrost.is. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- "MA in IEPS". Charles University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
- "Il nostro mondo ti piacerà". LUISS Guido Carli. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- "Executive-Masterstudiengang Philosophie, Politik, Wirtschaft". lmu.de. Retrieved 2010-05-21.
- PPE Lund, Sweden
- "Philosophy & Economics – Bachelor and Master programmes". Faculty of Law, Business Administration and Economics, University of Bayreuth. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
- "Master Political, Legal and Economic Philosophy (PLEP)". Faculty of Philosophy, University of Bern. Retrieved 2011-08-22.
- "Politische Ökonomie und Philosophie". Faculty of Philosophy, University of Zurich. Retrieved 2013-08-09.
- "Master Political, Economic and Legal Philosophy (PELP)". Department of Philosophy, University of Graz. Retrieved 2012-10-29.
- "Master Program Politics, Economics and Philosophy (M.Sc.)". University of Hamburg. Retrieved 2013-02-01.
- "Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy, Politics and Economics". University of Lucerne. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
- [dead link]
- oauife.edu.ng. "Department of Political Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife". Oauife.edu.ng. Retrieved 2010-06-02.
- 北京大学元培学院. Yuanpei.pku.edu.cn (2009-11-10). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
- Sogang University. Sogang.ac.kr. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
- "School of Political Science and Economics | WASEDA University". Waseda.jp. Retrieved 2010-06-02.