|Area||0.45 sq mi (1 km2)|
|- land||0.45 sq mi (1 km2)|
|- water||0.00 sq mi (0 km2)|
|Density||4,364.4 / sq mi (1,685 / km2)|
|- summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|Wikimedia Commons: Phoenix, Illinois|
Phoenix is a village in Cook County, Illinois, United States. The population was 1,964 at the 2010 census. It is located approximately 19 miles (31 km) south of the Chicago Loop and is part of the Chicago–Naperville–Joliet, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area.
The development of Phoenix is closely tied to its larger neighbor, Harvey. Harvey was established as an industrial city with no saloons. Many of its early factories were located between the Illinois Central Railroad and Harvey's eastern boundary at Halsted Street. One local businessman, William McLatchy, owned a large tract of land in an unincorporated area outside of Harvey. Soon, five saloons had opened in the area and a small housing subdivision known as Phenix Park was constructed during the 1890s. City leaders in Harvey, seeing businesses just outside of their boundaries selling alcohol to local workers, sought to annex Phenix Park and render it "dry" or free of alcohol-related establishments. The residents of Phenix Park wanted to retain local control of their affairs as an independent village. On August 29, 1900, an election was held to determine the future status of the area. A total of 56 votes were cast with 38 (67.9%) voting in favor of incorporation and 18 (32.1%) against. Despite legal challenges from Harvey, the result was upheld.
After incorporation, the name Phenix Park was changed to Phoenix. By 1910, the village had a population of 500, with most residents being of either Dutch or Polish ancestry. The first African Americans moved to Phoenix in 1915. Most came from Chicago and the South. Industry in Harvey and the railroads provided a strong employment base for Phoenix residents. The African American population steadily increased during the 1920s. By 1930, the village was home to 3,033 people. The demographic makeup of the community was 84.2% White, 15.1% Black, and 0.7% other. Growth continued through the 1940s and 1950s. New housing was constructed to accommodate this growth. The population in 1960 was 4,203. At this time, Phoenix had a diverse ethnic composition but the community was racially segregated. African Americans, comprising 65.3% of the population, lived in the northern portion of the village while Whites, forming 34.7% of the population, lived in the southern portion of Phoenix. In 1960, the municipal administration of Phoenix voted to de-annex the predominantly White portion of the village into Harvey. The exchange occurred in 1962 and with it, Phoenix lost one-third of its population as well as 60% of its tax base.
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,157 people, 789 households, and 542 families residing in the village. The population density was 4,785.5 people per square mile (1,850.7/km²). There were 846 housing units at an average density of 1,876.9 per square mile (725.9/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 2.92% White, 93.83% African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.05% Asian, 1.53% from other races, and 1.30% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.03% of the population.
There were 789 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.8% were married couples living together, 34.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.2% were non-families. 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.26.
In the village the population was spread out with 28.2% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 26.3% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, and 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 86.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.1 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $29,643, and the median income for a family was $32,688. Males had a median income of $26,875 versus $26,488 for females. The per capita income for the village was $14,321. About 18.4% of families and 22.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.5% of those under age 18 and 14.2% of those age 65 or over.
According to the 2010 census, the village has a total area of 0.45 square miles (1.2 km2), all land.
Phoenix is in Illinois' 2nd congressional district.
- "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Phoenix village, Illinois". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- "Phoenix, IL". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Retrieved 2009-07-29.
- "History of Phoenix". Village of Phoenix. Retrieved 2009-07-29.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "2010 Census U.S. Gazetteer Files for Places – Illinois". United States Census. Retrieved 2012-10-13.