Phoenix club (sports)

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For other uses, see phoenix club (disambiguation).

The term phoenix club is one used in professional team sports to refer to a new parent company that is set up to replace the parent company of a club that has failed in business terms but not in sporting terms, ideally while maintaining the continuity of the sporting activity.[1] In some cases, the phoenix club is created by the supporters of the club which has ended (or appears to be on the point of ending). A phoenix club will often have the same or similar name, logo and playing uniform to the original club. The term is particularly prevalent in the United Kingdom in relation to association football, though it is also used in other countries.

The term is also occasionally used to refer to a club formed by disgruntled supporters of a major team when a change of ownership or policy causes them to lose faith in the management of their favoured side (as happened in 2005 when FC United of Manchester was formed by fans of Manchester United as a protest at the sale of the latter to Malcolm Glazer).[2] although their status as such may disputed if the original club is still in existence at the time.

The term is taken from the mythical phoenix bird, which is said to resurrect itself from its own ashes. In the Australia-New Zealand A-League the demise of the sole New Zealand team, New Zealand Knights FC, resulted in the newly created club actually calling itself the Phoenix, albeit that the club moved a different city, Wellington.

In some cases, phoenix clubs will retain the name of the club which they replaced, implying a continuation from the former team. In other cases, name changes occur, perhaps due to proprietorial ownership existing on the old club's name.

The definition of a phoenix club does not include teams which have been re-founded as the original club, it has to be a legally separate entity for the club to be considered a phoenix club.[clarification needed][citation needed]

It does not also include teams that relocated and/or been renamed as a going concern, although many of the former may have their founding date as the day they have moved and still have strong links to their past, however they are considered to be the same club and therefore cannot be a phoenix (unless their previous entity officially folded and was liquidated).
(For a list of relocated teams, see Relocation of professional sports teams)

However, the term phoenix club is one that could de disputed depending on what criteria are used, as there is no single universally accepted definition. Furthermore there may be changes in what each country's football governing body and legal system defines as a phoenix club and not a resurrected club. For example: The Scottish Football Association has a different interpretation from the (English) Football Association with regard to phoenix clubs. Therefore Rangers FC is not regarded in Scotland as a phoenix club (despite a new company having bought the assets of the The Rangers Football Club plc in 2012 after a failure to agree a CVA with its creditors and consequent liquidation); whereas in England, Darlington 1883 is regarded as a phoenix clubd having gone through similar circumstances.

Association football[edit]

Austria[edit]

Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established 3rd Phoenix club Year established
Wacker Innsbruck FC Swarovski Tirol 1986 FC Tirol Innsbruck 1993 Wacker Innsbruck (2002) 2002
FC Linz FC Blau-Weiß Linz 1997
SV Austria Salzburg (1933)a SV Austria Salzburg 2005
BSV Bad Bleiberg (1952) BSV Bad Bleiberg (2006) 2006
FC Kärnten
SK Austria Kärntenb
SK Austria Klagenfurt (2007) 2007
ASKÖ Paschingb FC Pasching 2007
1. Wiener Neustädter SC SC Wiener Neustadt 2008
1. FC Vöcklabruck Vöcklabrucker SC 2009
Hakoah Vienna SC Maccabi Wien 2010

a The original SV Austria Salzburg became FC Red Bull Salzburg after being bought out by the Red Bull company. The new owners completely re-branded the club and renounced any history prior to 2005, becoming a completely separate club.
b ASKÖ Pasching relocated from Pasching to Klagenfurt and became SK Austria Kärnten, effectively a new club.

Belgium[edit]

Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established
K. Beerschot V.A.C. Beerschot AC 1999 FCO Beerschot Wilrijk 2013
K.S.K. Beveren Waasland-Beveren 2010
R.E. Mouscron Royal Mouscron-Péruwelz 2010

Chile[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Regional Atacama Deportes Copiapó 1999

China[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Wǔhàn Guānggǔ F.C. Wuhan Zall F.C. 2009

Colombia[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Club El Condor Bogotá F.C. 2002

Costa Rica[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Asociación Deportiva Limonense Limón F.C. 2009
A.D. Generaleñaa AS Puma Generaleña 2010

a A.D. Generaleña merged with A.D. Pérez Zeledón to become Municipal Pérez Zeledón, de facto only continuing the Pérez Zeledón heritage.

Croatia[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
HNK Dubrovnik HNK Dubrovnik 1919 2004
NK Varaždin NK Varteks 2011

Czech Republic[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
FK Pelikán Děčín FK Řezuz Děčín 1999
Dukla Prague FK Dukla Prague 2001

England / Wales[edit]

Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established
Rotherham Town F.C. (1878) Rotherham Town F.C. (1899) 1899
Leeds City F.C. Leeds United A.F.C. 1919
Wigan A.F.C.
Wigan County F.C.
Wigan United F.C.
Wigan Town A.F.C.
Wigan Borough F.C. 1919
South Liverpool F.C. (1890s)b South Liverpool F.C. (1935)b 1921
1935
Wigan Borough F.C. Wigan Athletic F.C. 1932
South Shields F.C. (1889) South Shields F.C. (1936) 1936 South Shields F.C. (1974) 1974
Merthyr Town F.C. Merthyr Tydfil F.C. 1945 Merthyr Town F.C. 2010
Burton Swifts
Burton Town F.C.
Burton United
Burton Wanderers
Burton Albion 1950
Accrington Stanley F.C. (1891) Accrington Stanley F.C. 1968
Bradford F.C. Bradford Park Avenue A.F.C. 1974
Gateshead Gateshead F.C. 1977
Newport County (1912) Newport County A.F.C. 1989
Aldershot F.C. Aldershot Town F.C.[3] 1992
Maidstone United F.C. (1897) Maidstone United F.C. 1992
Enfield F.C. Enfield Town F.C.a
Enfield 1893 F.C.
2001
2007
Wimbledon F.C.c AFC Wimbledon[4][5][6]a,c 2002
Atherstone Town (1887) Atherstone Town F.C. 2004
Telford United F.C. AFC Telford United 2004
Manchester United F.C. United of Manchestera 2005
Hornchurch F.C. AFC Hornchurch[7] 2005
Barking & East Ham United F.C. Barking F.C. 2006
Runcorn F.C. Halton Runcorn Linnets F.C. 2006
Farnborough Town F.C. Farnborough F.C. 2007
Scarborough F.C. Scarborough Athletic F.C.
Scarborough Town F.C.
2007
2008
Halifax Town A.F.C.[8] F.C. Halifax Town[9] 2008
Darwen F.C. A.F.C. Darwen 2009
Fisher Athletic F.C. Fisher F.C. 2009
Gresley Rovers F.C. Gresley F.C. 2009
Chester City F.C. Chester F.C.[10] 2010
Farsley Celtic A.F.C. Farsley A.F.C. 2010
Kings Lynn F.C. King's Lynn Town F.C. 2010
Rushden & Diamonds F.C. AFC Rushden & Diamonds[11] 2011
Windsor & Eton F.C. Windsor F.C. 2011
Croydon Athletic F.C. AFC Croydon Athletic[12] 2012
Darlington F.C. Darlington 1883[13] 2012
Northwich Victoria F.C. 1874 Northwich F.C.a 2012
Hereford United Hereford F.C. 2014
Salisbury City F.C. Salisbury F.C. 2015

a The phoenix clubs were formed despite the original club still existing (at the time), often causing controversy and a split in the fan-base, which means their phoenix club status may be disputed
b South Liverpool F.C. (1890s) became New Brighton A.F.C. in 1921.
c Wimbledon F.C. became Milton Keynes Dons F.C. in 2004; see Relocation of Wimbledon F.C. to Milton Keynes.

Georgia[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
FC Dinamo Sukhumia FC Tskhumi Sukhumia
FC ASMC Sokhumia
1990
1991
Metalurgi Zestafoni FC Margveti Zestafoni
FC Zestafoni
1990
2004

aDinamo Sokhumi continues to exist exist in exile in the local Abhkaz league. As the first war in Abhkazia erupted in the early 1990's, two phoenix club's have been found due to the Abkhaz–Georgian conflict to continue professional football representation of Sokhumi, as FC Dinamo Sokhumi refused to join Umaglesi Liga unlike the vast majority of the Georgian clubs, which withdrew from the Soviet League system.

Germany[edit]

Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established
Chemnitzer BC Chemnitzer FC 1933
VfB Leipzig 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig 1966
SC Tasmania 1900 Berlin SV Tasmania Berlin 1973
BSG Chemie Leipzig (1950) FC Sachsen Leipzig 1990 SG Leipzig Leutsch
BSG Chemie Leipzig (2011)[14]
2011
SpVgg Blau-Weiß 1890 Berlin SV Blau Weiss Berlin 1992
1. FC Kattowitz 1. FC Katowicea 2007
DVV Coburg FC Coburg 2011

a 1. FC Kattowitz was an ethnically German Upper Silesian pre-war men's football club. It was reactivated in 2007 as 1. FC Katowice was re-activated as a Polish Silesian women's football club.

Indonesia[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Putra Samarinda Pusamania Borneo F.C. 2014

Israel[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Hapoel Jerusalem F.C. Hapoel Katamon Jerusalem 2009

Italy[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
F.B.C. Torinese Torino F.C. 1906

Iran[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
PAS Tehran PAS Hamedan 2007

Japan[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Hagoromo Cluba Shimizu S-Pulse 1991
Yokohama Flügels Yokohama F.C. 1999
Seinō Transportation F.C. Gifu 2002

a Hagoromo Club were originally owned by Nippon Light Metal Co. and bore their name.

Latvia[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
RAF Jelgava FK Jelgava 2004
FK Liepājas Metalurgs FK Liepāja 2014

Macedonia[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
FK Bashkimi (1947–2008) FK Bashkimi (2011) 2011
FK Sloga Jugomagnat FK Shkupi 2012

New Zealand[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Football Kingz FC New Zealand Knights FC 2004
New Zealand Knights FC Wellington Phoenix 2007

Northern Ireland[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Ballymena F.C. Ballymena United F.C. 1934
Newry City F.C. Newry City AFC 2013

Panama[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Chiriquí F.C. Atlético Chiriquí 2002

Peru[edit]

Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established 3rd Phoenix club Year established
Juan Aurich (1922–1992) Aurich–Cañaña 1993 Juan Aurich (1996–2004) 1996 Juan Aurich (2005) 2005

Poland[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Śmigły Wilnoa Polonia Wilnoa 1990
Amica Wronki Błękitni Wronki 2007
1. FC Kattowitz b 1. FC Katowiceb 2007
Pogoń Lwów (1904) a Pogoń Lwów (2009) a 2009

a Pogoń Lwów and Śmigły Wilno are ethnically Polish clubs which played in pre-war Polish lands. However, the cities of Lwów (now known in English as Lviv) and Vilnius are part of Ukraine and Lithuania respectively, so the re-founded clubs play in the leagues of those countries.
b 1. FC Kattowitz was an ethnically German Upper Silesian pre-war men's football club. It was reactivated in 2007 as 1. FC Katowice was re-activated as a Polish Silesian women's football club.

Portugal[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
S.C. Salgueiros Sport Clube Salgueiros 08 2008

Republic of Ireland[edit]

Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established
Cork City Cork United 1940 Cork Athletic 1948
Galway United F.C. (1937–2011) Galway United F.C. (2013) 2013

Romania[edit]

Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established
FC Corvinul Hunedoara SC Corvinul 2005 Hunedoara 2005 FC Hunedoara 2009
FC Argeș Pitești F.C. Arges 1953 2012
FC Politehnica Timișoara Poli Timișoara 2012
CSU Voinţa Sibiu LSS Voinţa Sibiu 2012
FC Vaslui FC Vaslui 2002 2014

Russia[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
FC Spartak Ryazan FC Ryazan 1995
Torpedo-ZIL Moscow (1997)a Torpedo-ZIL Moscow (2003) 2003
FC Zvezda Irkutsk FC Baikal Irkutsk 2009
FC Amur Blagoveshchensk FC Amur-2010 Blagoveshchensk 2010
FC Ryazan FC Zvezda Ryazan 2010
FC Dynamo Stavropol FC Dynamo GTS Stavropol 2014

a Torpedo-ZIL Moscow (1997) became FC Moscow in 2004.

Scotland[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Airdrieonians F.C. (1878) Airdrieonians F.C. (2002) 2002
Clydebank F.C. (1965)a Clydebank F.C. 2003
Gretna F.C. Gretna F.C. 2008 2008

a The Clydebank F.C. prior to the current club were themselves a phoenix club; in total there have been 6 clubs in the Clydebank lineage dating back to 1888.

Note: The SFA has a different interpretation from the FA with regard to phoenix clubs. Therefore Rangers FC is not regarded as a phoenix club despite a new company having bought the assets of the The Rangers Football Club plc in 2012 after a failure to agree a CVA with creditors, whereas Darlington 1883 is regarded as a phoenix club in England having gone through similar circumstances.

Serbia[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
ŽAK Subotica FK Spartak Subotica 1945
FK Hajduk Kula OFK Hajduk[15][16][17] 2013 [18]

Slovenia[edit]

Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established
I. SSK Maribor NK Branik Maribor 1949 NK Maribor 1960
NK Olimpija Ljubljana (defunct) NK Olimpija Ljubljana (2005) 2005
NK Mura ND Mura 05 2005 NŠ Mura 2012

South Africa[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Bush Bucks F.C. (1957) Bush Bucks F.C. (2007) 2007
Bay United Bay Stars 2011

South Korea[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Gwangju Sangmu FC Gwangju FC
Sangju Sangmu FC
2010
2011
Anyang Cheetahsa FC Anyang 2013
Bucheon SKb Bucheon FC 1995 2007

a Anyang Cheetahs relocated and became FC Seoul in 2004. The phoenix club was created due to the relocation after the reversal of controversial decentralisation policy at the time.
b Bucheon SK relocated and became Jeju United FC in 2006. The phoenix club was created due to the relocation after the reversal of controversial decentralisation policy at the time.

Spain[edit]

Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established
AgD Ceuta AD Ceuta 1996
CP Mérida Mérida UD 2000 Mérida AD 2013

Sweden[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Nacka FF (1990) Nacka FF 2011

Turkey[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
İskenderunspor İskenderunspor 1967 2009

Ukraine[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
FC Arsenal Kiev (1925) Arsenal Kiev 2001, 2014
FC Chayka-VMS Sevastopol FC Sevastopol 2002
FC Yavir Krasnopilya
FC Spartak Sumy
FC Sumy 2008
Pogoń Lwów (1904) a Pogoń Lwów (2009) a 2009
FC Dnipro Cherkasy FC Cherkaskyi Dnipro 2010
SC Odesa FC SKA Odesa 2011
FC Obolon Kyiv FC Obolon-Brovar Kyiv 2013

a Pogoń Lwów is an ethnically Polish club which played in pre-war Polish lands. However, the city of Lwów is now located in Ukraine and known in English as Lviv, so the re-founded club is part of the Ukrainian football league system.

United States of America[edit]

Original club 1st Phoenix club Year established 2nd Phoenix club Year established 3rd Phoenix club Year established
Atlanta Chiefs/Apollos (1967) Atlanta Chiefs 1979[19]
Fort Lauderdale Strikers (1977–83) Fort Lauderdale Strikers (1988–94) 1988[20] Fort Lauderdale Strikers (1994-1997) 1994 Fort Lauderdale Strikers 2011
Philadelphia Atoms (1973) Philadelphia Fury 1978
San Jose Clash/Earthquakes (1994) San Jose Earthquakes 2008[21]
New York Cosmos (1970–85) New York Cosmos (2010) 2010
Washington Freedom (2001) D.C. United Women/Washington Spirit 2011/2012

Note: Due to numerous disputes over which U.S. teams should be considered for this category, caution should be taken in determining whether a team is truly a phoenix, as opposed to one that's merely recycling a WUSA, WPS, or NASL name.

Basketball[edit]

Poland[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Prokom Trefl Sopot Trefl Sopot 2009

Slovenia[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
ŽKK Maribor KK Maribor 2005

United Kingdom[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Thames Valley Tigers Guildford Heat 2005
Hemel Hempstead Lakers Hemel Storm 2010
Manchester Giants (1975–2001) Manchester Giants 2011
Essex Leopards (1994–2003) Essex Leopards 2013

Handball[edit]

Spain[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Atlético Madrid BM BM Neptuno 2011

Ice Hockey[edit]

Sweden[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Hammarby Hockey (1921–2008) Hammarby Hockey 2008

Latvia[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Dinamo Riga (original) Dinamo Riga (current) 2008

United Kingdom[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
MK Kings MK Lightning 2002
Haringey Racers London Racers 2003

Motorcycle Speedway[edit]

Poland[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Polonez Poznań
HCP Poznań
Unia Poznań
PSŻ Poznań 2004
TŻ Łódź Orzeł Łódź 2005
KM Ostrów Wielkopolski ZKŻ Ostrovia Ostrów Wielkoposki 2009

Rugby League[edit]

England & Wales[edit]

Original club Phoenix club Year established
Brighouse Rangers RFC Brighouse Rangers (1915) 1915
Crusaders Rugby League North Wales Crusaders 2011

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Administration: How a 'phoenix' club can play in Scottish football". Stv.tv. 1 November 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  2. ^ "Phoenix football – the clubs that would not die". Supportersnotcustomers.com. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  3. ^ "Aldershot Town FC enter administration". www.footballeconomy.com. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  4. ^ Osbourne, Chris (2014-08-13). "MK Dons 3-1 AFC Wimbledon". BBC Football. Retrieved 2014-11-13. It is 11 years since the old Wimbledon was moved 60 miles north to Milton Keynes by music mogul Pete Winkelman, and 10 years since the club was rebranded into MK Dons. But still AFC Wimbledon, the phoenix club created by fans, are searching for the win that may provide them with the smallest sensation of revenge. 
  5. ^ White, Jim (2012-12-02). "MK Dons 2 AFC Wimbledon 1: match report". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2015-01-01. ... AFC Wimbledon, the phoenix club born from the most bitterly contested geographical switch in English football history ... 
  6. ^ Doyle, Paul (2012-11-30). "Neal Ardley's phoenix club on the rise for FA Cup duel of raw emotion". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-01-01. Wimbledon ... as you may have gathered, is not the same thing as MK Dons. For most people connected with Wimbledon, MK Dons is the club that hijacked their one and absconded to Milton Keynes to raise an illegitimate offshoot ... fans founded a phoenix club, AFC Wimbledon, that rose from the ashes and soared up through the leagues, ascending five tiers in nine seasons to its current perch in League Two. 
  7. ^ Griffin, Paul (31 August 2013). "THIS AFTERNOON’S MATCH PREVIEW – AFC HORNCHURCH (HOME)". www.pitchero.com. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  8. ^ "Halifax on the brink of collapse". BBC Sport. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
  9. ^ "Leagues agreed for 2008–09 season" BBC Sport. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
  10. ^ "Chester City wound up in High Court". BBC Sport. 10 March 2010. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  11. ^ "Rushden & Diamonds fans plan to set up 'phoenix' club". BBC Sport. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  12. ^ "Phoenix club approved". www.croydon.co.uk. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  13. ^ "Darlington Match Preview". www.farsleyafc.co.uk. Retrieved 8 September 2013. 
  14. ^ http://www.turus.net/sport/fussball/news/8120-gedenkspiel-für-marco-eckstein-fc-sachsen-leipzig-vs-bsg-chemie-leipzig.html
  15. ^ http://www.sportal.rs/news.php?news=110628
  16. ^ Hajduk nastavlja kao OFK Hajduk Kula
  17. ^ http://www.novosti.rs/vesti/sport.294.html:449968-Kula-Osnovan-novi-OFK-Hajduk
  18. ^ http://www.b92.net/sport/fudbal/vesti.php?yyyy=2013&mm=08&dd=20&nav_id=744740
  19. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=pkZDAAAAIBAJ&sjid=dK0MAAAAIBAJ&pg=1055,2690577&dq=chiefs+return+to+atlanta+soccer&hl=en
  20. ^ . 5 November 1987 http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=MH&s_site=miami&p_multi=MH&p_theme=realcities&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EB36852037B0A76&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ http://www.sjearthquakes.com/club/history