||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (November 2011)|
||The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with United Kingdom and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (November 2009)|
In broadcasting, a phone-in or call-in is a programme format in which viewers or listeners are invited to air their live comments by telephone, usually in respect of a specific topic selected for discussion on the day of the broadcast. On radio (especially talk radio), it is common for an entire programme to be dedicated to a phone-in session. On television, phone ins are often part of a wider discussion programme: a current example in the UK is The Wright Stuff.
BBC Radio Nottingham is credited with having aired the first British phone-in on 4 February 1968, in a programme called What Are They Up To Now?
Speech based Talk Radio UK was launched in 1995, with much of its programming featuring phone-ins. It also introduced the notion of the shock jock to the UK, with presenters like Caesar the Geezer and Tommy Boyd constructing heated discussions.
Ian Hutchby has researched power relations in phone ins, looking at arguments and confrontations. Using conversation analysis, he describes how the host retains power through devices such as "The Second Position" — the concept of going second in a discussion, giving the host time to formulate a response.
Similarly, the last word is always the broadcast word. The public can choose to end the conversation, but they are doing so by withdrawing from the interactional arena (Hutchby, 1996: 94-5; Talbot et al.).
In 2007, the BBC suspended all phone-in competitions (but not voting) due to an internal inquiry into corruption in the production of these games in shows such as charity telethons after a nationwide inquiry into the whole process leading to the cancellation of ITV Play.
The caller is connected via a telephone hybrid, which connects the telephone line to the audio console through impedance matching, or more modernly through digital signal processing, which can improve the perceived audio quality of the call. Telephone calls are often organised through a system which also provides broadcast automation, with an administrative assistant answering calls and entering caller information on a personal computer, which also displays on the radio presenter's screen. A profanity delay is often used to keep profanity and other inappropriate material off the air. For contests, the conversation can be recorded and edited "on the fly", before playback on the air just a few minutes later.
- Crisell, A. (2002) An Introductory History of British Broadcasting. 2nd ed. London Routledge.
- Hutchby, I. (1996) Confrontation Talk: Arguments, Asymmetries and Power on Talk Radio. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
- Talbot, M., Atkinson, K., and Atkinson, D. (2003) Language and Power in the Modern World. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
|This broadcasting-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|