|Molar mass||886.56 g/mol, neutral with fatty acid composition - 18:0, 20:4|
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Phosphatidylinositol consists of a family of lipids as illustrated on the right. They possess a negative charge at physiological pH due to the phosphate group and typically form only a minor component in the cytosolic side of eukaryotic cell membranes. The isomer of inositol is assumed to be the myo- conformer unless otherwise stated.
The form of phosphatidylinositol comprising the isomer muco-inositol is used as a sensory receptor in the gustatory modality of the sensory system. It is often referred to as PtdIns, however this does not differentiate it from phosphatidylinositol comprising the myo- conformer of inositol.
The phosphatidylinositol can be phosphorylated to form phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PI-4-P, referred to as PIP in close context or informally), phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) and phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3). All lipids based on phosphatidylinositol are known as inositides, or sometimes phosphoinositides.
The neurologically important PtdIns is synthesized as a liquid crystalline region of the outer lemma of the cilia of the sodium path (Na path) sensory receptors exposed to the mucosa in mammals and some other vertebrates (Family Chordata). This specific form of phosphatidylinositol formed with muco-Inositol (CAS 488-55-1) is NOT shown at right. This compound forms the sensory receptor of the sodium path under the molecular biochemical model of the gustatory modality.
The synthesis of phosphatidylinositol in the laboratory is catalyzed by phosphatidylinositol synthase and involves CDP-diacylglycerol and L-myo-inositol.
PI has a polar and non-polar region, making the lipid an amphiphile. Phosphatidylinositol is classified as a glycerophospholipid that contains a glycerol backbone, two non-polar fatty acid tails, a phosphate group substituted with an inositol polar head group.
The most common fatty acids of phosphoinositides are stearic acid in the SN1 position and arachidonic acid, in the SN2 position. Hydrolysis of phosphoinositides yield one mole of glycerol, two moles of fatty acids, one mole of inositol and one, two, or three moles of phosphoric acids, depending on the number of phosphates on the inositol rings. Phosphoinositides are regarded as the most acidic phospholipid.
The specific fatty acids of PdtIns, and their conformation, employed in the sensory neurons has not be elucidated.
Phosphorylated forms of phosphatidylinositol (PI) are called phosphoinositides and play important roles in lipid signaling, cell signaling and membrane trafficking. The inositol ring can be phosphorylated by a variety of kinases on the three, four and five hydroxyl groups in seven different combinations. However, the two and six hydroxyl group is typically not phosphorylated due to steric hindrance.
All seven variations of the following phosphoinositides have been found in animals:
- Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, also known as PtdIns3P or PI(3)P
- Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, also known as PtdIns4P or PI(4)P
- Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate, also known as PtdIns5P or PI(5)P
- Phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate, also known as PtdIns(3,4)P or PI(3,4)P2
- Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, also known as PtdIns(3,5)P or PI(3,5)P2
- Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, also known as PtdIns(4,5)P, PI(4,5)P2 or often simply referred to as PIP2
- Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, also known as PtdIns(3,4,5)P or PI(3,4,5)P3
These phosphoinositides are also found in plant cells, with the exception of PIP3.
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- PI 3-kinase
- Inositol phosphate
- Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate
- Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate
- Phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate
- Phosphatidylinositol (3,4)-bisphosphate
- Phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate
- Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate
- Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate
- Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate
- inositol pentakisphosphate
- inositol hexaphosphate
- inositol triphosphate receptor
- Mathews, Chrisotphe K.; van Holde, K.E.; Ahern, Kevin G., (2005). Biochemistry Third Edition.
- Muller-Roeber B, Pical C; , (2002). Inositol Phospholipid Metabolism in Arabidopsis. Characterized and Putative Isoforms of Inositol Phospholipid Kinase and Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipase C.
- Phosphatidylinositols at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Phosphatidylinositol at Lipid Library