||This article may be confusing or unclear to readers. (October 2013)|
|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||220.093 g/mol|
|Appearance||yellow, yellow-green or gray solid|
|Density||2.08 g.cm3, solid|
|Crystal structure||orthorhombic, Schönflies notation D2h|
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Phosphorus sesquisulfide is the inorganic compound with the formula P4S3. It was developed by Henri Sevene and Emile David Cahen in 1898 as part of their invention of friction matches that did not pose the health hazards of white phosphorus. This yellow solid is one of two commercially produced phosphorus sulfides. It is a component of "strike anywhere" matches.
Depending on purity, samples can appear yellow-green to grey. The compound was discovered by G. Lemoine and first produced safely in commercial quantities in 1898 by Albright and Wilson. It dissolves in an equal weight of carbon disulfide (CS2). Unlike some other phosphorus sulfides, P4S3 is slow to hydrolyze and has a well-defined melting point.
Structure and synthesis
The molecule has C3v symmetry. It is a derivative of the tetrahedral (P4) unit from insertion of sulfur into three P-P bonds. The P-S and P-P distances are 2.090 and 2.235 Å, respectively. P4Se3 and P4S3 adopt the same structures. These compounds can be melted together and form mixed crystals of one dissolved in the other. Under higher temperatures, mixed chalcogenide molecules P4S2Se and P4SSe2 will form.
Its flash point is about 100 °C.
- Leung, Y. C.; Waser, J.; van Houten, S.; Vos, A.; Wiegers, G. A.; Wiebenga, E. H. (1957). "The Crystal Structure of P4S3". Acta Crystallographica 10 (9): 574–582. doi:10.1107/S0365110X57002042.
- US patent 614350, Seyene, H.; Cahen, E. D., "Match Composition", issued 1898-11-15
- Burns, G.R., and Sarfati, J.D., “Raman spectra of tetraphosphorus triselenide doped in tetraphosphorus trisulphide”, Solid State Communications 66(4):347–49, April 1988 | doi:10.1016/0038-1098(88)90854-X).
- Burns, G.R., Rollo, J.R., and Sarfati, J.D.: “Raman spectra of the tetraphosphorus trichalcogenide cage molecules P4S2Se and P4SSe2”, Inorganica Chimica Acta 161(1):35–38, 3 July 1989 | doi:10.1016/S0020-1693(00)90111-7).
- Bettermann, G.; Krause, W.; Riess, G.; Hofmann, T. (2005), "Phosphorus Compounds, Inorganic", Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_527
- Corbridge, D. E. C. (1995). Phosphorus: An Outline of its Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Technology (5th ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 115–116. ISBN 0-444-89307-5.