Phraates I of Parthia
|Phraates I of Parthia|
|Predecessor||Phriapatius of Parthia|
|Successor||Mithridates I of Parthia|
Phraates I of Parthia (Persian: فرهاد يکم), ruler of the Parthian Empire from 176–171 BCE, succeed his father Phriapatius (191–176 BCE) on the throne. Died relatively young, and appointed as his successor not one of his sons, but his brother Mithridates I (171–138 BCE).
He subdued the Amardians (lat. Amardis), mountaineers occupying eastern portion of the Elburz range, south of the Caspian Sea.
Campaign against Amardians
At beginning of his reign Phraates I directed his arms towards territory inhabited by Amardians, a poor but warlike people, who appear to have occupied eastern portion of the Elburz range, south of the Caspian Sea, what is probably today immediately south of Māzandarān and Astarabad. The reduction of these fierce mountaineers is likely to have occupied him for some years, since their country was exceedingly strong and difficult.
At that time Amardi were de facto nominally subjects of the Seleucidae, we don't see any mention of assistance being rendered to them, nor even any complaint were being sent by Seleucus IV against unprovoked aggression of the Parthian monarch.
Account for inactivity of Seleucus IV Philopator in Syria, who was characterized as weak and pacific, might be consisted in part by war exhaustion of Syria in this period, which was consequence of his father's, Antiochus III, great war against Rome (192–188 BCE) and heavy contribution which was imposed upon the Seleucids by the Treaty of Apamea. Syria might scarcely have recovered sufficient military strength to enter upon a new struggle, especially with a remote and powerful enemy.
Seleucus IV also may have thought that material interests of Seleucid Empire were only minorly affected by Parthian aggression, since the Amardi were too poor to provide much tribute, so Syria considered their subjection rather a formality than a fact. Therefore he allowed reduction of the Amardians, probably conceiving that their transfer under Arsacid dominance would neither increase Parthian power nor diminish his own.
Campaign in Media Rhagiana
As Phraates faced no resistance from the Seleucids, when he conquered the Amardians, his expansionistic appetite grew and he resolved to append adjacent territory to his kingdom. This was the tract lying immediately to the West of the Caspian Gates, which was traditionally reckoned to Media (Assyria), forming a distinct district known as Media Rhagiana. It was naturally a very fertile region, being watered by numerous mountain streams originating in Elburz range, and possessing a soil of remarkable productiveness.
Its breadth was not great, since it consisted of a mere strip between the mountains and the Great Salt Desert which occupies the whole centre of the Iranian plateau, but it extended in length at least a hundred and fifty miles, from the Caspian Gates to the vicinity of Qazwin. Since remote antiquity its capital city was Rhages, situated near the eastern extremity of the strip, probably at the spot now called Kaleh Erij, about twenty-three miles from the Gates. It's clear enough that Phraates cast his covetous eye on this region. Seize of his conquest is doubtful, but with least certainty he established lodgment in its eastern extremity, which put the whole region in jeopardy.
Nature has set a remarkable barrier between the more eastern and the more western portions of Occidental Asia, about midway in the tract which lies straightly south of the Caspian Sea. The Elburz range in this part is one of so tremendous a character, and northward adjoins so closely on Caspian Sea, forcing all communication between east and west inevitably to pass south of it. And south of Elbruz, the Great Desert imposing itself as insuperable obstacle to transit, the line of communication has to cling to the flanks of the mountain flanks chain, thus leaving for traverse only the narrow strip between the mountains and the desert, which is rarely ten miles in width.
But about longitude 52°20' E this strip itself fails and is replaced with rocky spur which runs due south 20–30 miles in distance from Elburz into the Great Desert, breaking the line of communication and seeming at first sight to obstruct it completely. The spur itself is penetrable by two notch, one more difficult where the spur joins Elburz, and another further down to the south which now known as the Girduni Sudurrah pass, constitutes the famous “Pylae Caspiae”. Only through this passage armies can proceed from Armenia, Media, and Persia eastward, or from Turkestan, Khorasan, and Afghanistan into the more western parts of Asia.
Therefore, possession of the Girduni Sudurrah pass was of utmost importance, and for its protection Rhages was built near the eastern end of its territory. Parthian aggression was checked as long as Rhages remained in Seleucid possession, and Rhagiana along with rest of Media, and the other provinces were safe. While the loss of it to Parthia practically represented the immediate loss of all Rhagiana, which hadn't any other natural protection, and adjacent eastern provinces.
After Phraates surmounted the Gates and established lodgment in the plain country beyond them, he resettled a portion of the Amardians from their mountain homes into the city of Charax, westernly of the Gates, probably on the site now occupied by the ruins known as Uewanikif. Holding this stronghold he imposed a menace to neighboring Rhages, which could scarcely endure against enemy encamped at its doors.
We are not informed, however, of any results which followed on the occupation of Charax during the lifetime of Phraates. His reign lasted only seven years, from 181-174 BCE(?), and it is thus probable that he died before there was time for his second important conquest to have any further consequences.
Phraates had sufficient warning of his coming decease to make preparations with respect to a successor. Though he had several sons, some of whom were (we must suppose) of sufficient age to have ascended the throne, he left his crown to his brother, Mithridates.
He probably conceived that his kingdom require leadership of a firm ruler who could repel either Syrian or Bactrian aggression at any time, and also trust him better than any of his sons to conduct aggressive expeditions with combined vigor and forethought if Parthia pursue the path of conquest, which it entered upon during his reign. We shall see, as the history proceeds, how Mithridates justified his choice.
It also appears that Phraates have borne special affection toward Mithridates, since he takes name of “Philadelphus” (transl. brother-loving) upon his coins. It must have been huge satisfaction to him that he was instantly able by his last act to consult for the good of his country, and to gratify his sentiment on which, evidently, he prided himself.
Phraates I’s son Phraates II was not appointed as a new autocratic king, presumably because of Phraates II’s immaturity, which wasn’t suitable as the country was struggling with famine. Later, Phraates II was appointed by his uncle Mithridates I, as the last named's successor. The appointment was nevertheless in accordance with Mithridates I’s vision of a king that would give the Parthian empire reinforcement. Particularly strong was the desire to conquer Media and the rest of the Haron fortress. -->
- List of Parthian kings outlines two distinct Arsacid chronologies
- Rawlinson, George (1875). "Chapter IV - Consolidation of Parthian Kingdom. Death of Tiridates and accession of Arsaces III. Attack on Media. War of Artabanus (Arsaces III) with Antiochus the Great. Period of inaction. Great development of Bactrian powers. Reigns of Priapatus (Arsaces IV) and Phraates I (Arsaces V)". The Seven Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World (in three volumes). 3. Parthia & New Persia. New York, Philadelphia & Chicago: The Nottingham Society. Archived from the original on 1 July 2005..
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
- Junianus Justinus, Historiarum Philippicarum, xli, 5
- Isidore of Seville, Chronica, 7
- "Phraates I (176–171 BCE)". Retrieved 18 September 2010..
Phraates I of ParthiaDied: 171 BC
|King of Parthia