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All information about him is from Herodotus. According to him (1.102), Phraortes was the son of Deioces and united all Median tribes into a single state. He also subjugated the Persians and began to conquer other nations of Asia. After a rule of twenty-two years (ca. 675–653 BCE), he fell in battle against the Assyrians. However, some scholars assume that he ruled for fifty-three years, ca. 678-625. Phraortes is commonly identified with Kashtariti, a chieftain in Media, although some scholars consider such an identification doubtful.
^Akbarzadeh, D.; A. Yahyanezhad (2006). The Behistun Inscriptions (Old Persian Texts) (in Persian). Khaneye-Farhikhtagan-e Honarhaye Sonati. p. 87. ISBN964-8499-05-5.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^Kent, Ronald Grubb (1384 AP). Old Persian: Grammar, Text, Glossary (in Persian). translated into Persian by S. Oryan. p. 406. ISBN964-421-045-X.Check date values in: |date= (help)