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Phraortes (from Old Persian: 𐎳𐎼𐎺𐎼𐎫𐎡𐏁, Fravartiš,[1][2] or Frâda via Ancient Greek Φραόρτης; c. 665 - 633 BC), son of Deioces, was the second king of the Median Empire.

Like his father Deioces, Phraortes started wars against Assyria, but was defeated and killed by Ashurbanipal, the king of Neo-Assyria.

All information about him is from Herodotus. According to him (1.102), Phraortes was the son of Deioces and united all Median tribes into a single state. He also subjugated the Persians and began to conquer other nations of Asia. After a rule of twenty-two years (ca. 675–653 BCE), he fell in battle against the Assyrians. However, some scholars assume that he ruled for fifty-three years, ca. 678-625. Phraortes is commonly identified with Kashtariti, a chieftain in Media, although some scholars consider such an identification doubtful.[3]


  1. ^ Akbarzadeh, D.; A. Yahyanezhad (2006). The Behistun Inscriptions (Old Persian Texts) (in Persian). Khaneye-Farhikhtagan-e Honarhaye Sonati. p. 87. ISBN 964-8499-05-5. 
  2. ^ Kent, Ronald Grubb (1384 AP). Old Persian: Grammar, Text, Glossary (in Persian). translated into Persian by S. Oryan. p. 406. ISBN 964-421-045-X. 
  3. ^ Medvedskaya, I authorlink (20 Jul 2004). "PHRAORTES". Encyclopædia Iranica (in English). Retrieved 18 Dec 2012. 

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Born: 665 BC Died: 633 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of Media
665 BC-633 BC
Succeeded by