Phyllanthus niruri is a widespread tropical plant commonly found in coastal areas, best known by the common names stonebreaker or seed-under-leaf. It is a relative of the spurges, belonging to the Phyllanthus genus of Family Phyllanthaceae.
Common names for Phyllanthus niruri include Chanca Piedra in Spanish, Bhumyamalaki in Ayurveda, and Quebra-Pedra in Portuguese. The herb is known as Keezha Nelli (கீழாநெல்லி, an abbreviation of கீழ்க்காய்-நெல்லி, meaning 'berry under') in Tamil, Nela Nelli(ನೆಲ ನೆಲ್ಲಿ) in Kannada,Keezhar Nelli in Malayalam and Nela Usiri in Telugu. It has many other common names in assorted languages, including dukong anak, dukong-dukong anak, amin buah, rami buah, turi hutan, bhuiaonla, and Meniran (in Indonesia).
It grows 50 to 70 centimeters tall and bears ascending herbaceous branches. The bark is smooth and light green. It bears numerous pale green flowers which are often flushed with red. The fruits are tiny, smooth capsules containing seeds.
P. niruri is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used for problems of the stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney and spleen. The plant has also been used in Brazil and Peru as an herbal remedy for kidney stones.
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A clinical study with Phyllanthus niruri, indicated that it may reduce the levels of urinary calcium. A subsequent study of 150 patients over a 6-month period indicated that an extract of this herb reduces the incidence of stone formation, and concluded, "Regular self-administration of P. niruri after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stones results in an increased stone-free rate that appears statistically significant for lower caliceal location. Its efficacy and the absolute lack of side effects make this therapy suitable to improve overall outcomes after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for lower pole stones." A more recent rat study found that Phyllanthus niruri has been shown to interfere with many stages of stone formation, reducing crystals aggregation, modifying their structure and composition as well as altering the interaction of the crystals with tubular cells leading to reduced subsequent endocytosis." 
- "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved June 6, 2014.
- "Keelanelli". Tamilnadu.com. 21 January 2013.
- Patel, Jay Ram; Tripathi, Priyanka; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Dixit, Vinod Kumar (2011). "Phyllanthus amarus: Ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology: A review". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 138 (2): 286–313. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.09.040. PMID 21982793.
- Nishiura JL, Campos AH, Boim MA, Heilberg IP, Schor N (October 2004). "Phyllanthus niruri normalizes elevated urinary calcium levels in calcium stone forming (CSF) patients". Urological Research 32 (5): 362–6. doi:10.1007/s00240-004-0432-8. PMID 15221244.
- Micali S, Sighinolfi MC, Celia A, De Stefani S, Grande M, Cicero AF, Bianchi G (September 2006). "Can Phyllanthus niruri affect the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal stones? A randomized, prospective, long-term study.". J Urol. 176 (3): 1020–2. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2006.04.010. PMID 16890682.
- Boim MA, Heilberg IP, Schor N. (December 2010). "Phyllanthus niruri as a promising alternative treatment for nephrolithiasis". Int Braz J Urol. 36 (6): 657–64. doi:10.1590/S1677-55382010000600002. PMID 21176271.
- Calixto JB, Yunes RA, Neto AS, Valle RM, Rae GA (May 2000). "Antispasmodic effects of an alkaloid extracted from Phyllanthus sellowianus: a comparative study with papaverine". Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 17 (3-4): 313–21. PMID 6529614. Check date values in:
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- Wang BE. "Treatment of chronic liver diseases with traditional Chinese medicine". Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 15 Suppl: E67–70. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1746.2000.02100.x. PMID 10921385.
- Freitas AM, Schor N, Boim MA (June 2002). "The effect of Phyllanthus niruri on urinary inhibitors of calcium oxalate crystallization and other factors associated with renal stone formation". BJU International 89 (9): 829–34. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2002.02794.x. PMID 12010223.
- Boim MA, Heilberg IP, Schor N (2010). "Phyllanthus niruri as a promising alternative treatment for nephrolithiasis". International Braz J Urol 36 (6): 657–64; discussion 664. doi:10.1590/S1677-55382010000600002. PMID 21176271.
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