Physalacriaceae

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Physalacriaceae
Wielangta Unidentified Fungus 5212.jpg
Oudemansiella australis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Physalacriaceae
Corner (1970)
Type genus
Physalacria
Peck (1882)
Genera

Armillaria
Cylindrobasidium
Cibaomyces
Cryptomarasmius
Cyptotrama
Dactylosporina
Flammulina
Gloiocephala
Guyanagaster
Himantia
Hormomitaria
Hymenopellis
Laccariopsis
Mycaureola
Naiadolina
Oudemansiella
Physalacria
Ponticulomyces
Protoxerula
Rhizomarasmius
Rhodotus
Strobilurus
Xerula

The Physalacriaceae are a family of fungi in the order Agaricales. Species in the family have a widespread distribution, ranging from the Arctic, (Rhizomarasmius), to the tropics, e.g. Gloiocephala, and from marine sites (Mycaureola) and fresh waters (Gloiocephala) to semiarid forests (Xerula).

Description[edit]

Most species in the Physalacriaceae form fruit bodies with caps and stipes. They have a monomitic hyphal system (wherein only generative hypha are produced), and clamp connections are present in the hyphae. Basidia (spore-bearing cells) are club-shaped with two to four sterigmata. The basidiospores generally have ellipsoidal, spindle-like (fusiform), cylindrical, or tear-drop (lacrimiform) shapes; they are thin-walled, hyaline, and do not react with Melzer's reagent.[1] The family also contains corticioid fungi (in genus Cylindrobasidium) and a secotioid species (Guyanagaster necrorhiza).[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

The family was originally defined by English mycologist E.J.H. Corner in 1970[3] and revised in 1985 by Jacques Berthier[4] but neither author anticipated the application to a molecularly defined group of agarics first identified by Moncalvo and others in 2002.[5] Molecular studies placed Physalacria, formerly the sole genus in this family, together with the agaric genera Flammulina and Xerula and Armillaria.[5][6][7][8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cannon PF, Kirk PM. (2007). Fungal Families of the World. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. pp. 277–8. ISBN 0-85199-827-5. 
  2. ^ Henkel TW, Smith ME, Aime MC. (2010). "Guyanagaster, a new wood-decaying sequestrate genus of Agaricales from the Guiana Shield". American Journal of Botany 97 (9): 1474–84. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000097. 
  3. ^ Corner EJH. (1970). Supplement to 'A monograph of Clavaria and allied genera'. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 33. Lehre, Germany: J. Cramer. p. 10. 
  4. ^ Berthier J. Les Physalacriaceae Du Globe: (Hyménomycétales clavarioïdes). Bibliotheca Mycologica (in French) 98. Lubrecht & Cramer. ISBN 978-3768214247. 
  5. ^ a b Moncalvo JM, Vilgalys R, Redhead SA, Johnson JE, James TY, Catherine Aime M, Hofstetter V, Verduin SJ, Larsson E, Baroni TJ, Greg Thorn R, Jacobsson S, Clémençon H, Miller OK. (2002). "One hundred and seventeen clades of euagarics". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 23 (3): 357–400. doi:10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00027-1. PMID 12099793. 
  6. ^ Dentinger BTM, McLaughlin DJ. (2006). "Reconstructing the Clavariaceae using nuclear large subunit rDNA sequences and a new genus segregated from Clavaria". Mycologia 98 (5): 746–62. doi:10.3852/mycologia.98.5.746. PMID 17256578. 
  7. ^ Wilson AW, Desjardin DE. (2005). "Phylogenetic relationships in the gymnopoid and marasmioid fungi (Basidiomycetes, euagarics clade)". Mycologia 97 (3): 667–79. doi:10.3852/mycologia.97.3.667. PMID 16392255. 
  8. ^ Hao Y-J, Qin J, Yang ZL. (2014). "Cibaomyces, a new genus of Physalacriaceae from East Asia". Phytotaxa 162 (4): 198–210.