|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||660.04 g mol−1|
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Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Phytic acid (known as inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), or phytate when in salt form), discovered in 1903, is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds. Phytate is not digestible to humans or nonruminant animals, so it is not a source of either inositol or phosphate if eaten directly. Moreover, phytic acid chelates and thus makes unabsorbable certain important minor minerals such as zinc and iron, and to a lesser extent, also macro minerals such as calcium and magnesium; phytin refers specifically to the calcium or magnesium salt form of phytic acid.
Catabolites of phytic acid are called lower inositol polyphosphates. Examples are inositol penta- (IP5), tetra- (IP4), and triphosphate (IP3).
Significance in agriculture 
Phosphorus and inositol in phytate form are not, in general, bioavailable to nonruminant animals because these animals lack the digestive enzyme phytase required to remove phosphate from the inositol in the phytate molecule. On the other hand, ruminants readily digest phytate because of the phytase produced by rumen microorganisms.
In most commercial agriculture, nonruminant livestock, such as swine, fowl, and fish, are fed mainly grains, such as maize, and legumes, such as soybeans. Because phytate from these grains and beans is unavailable for absorption, the unabsorbed phytate passes through the gastrointestinal tract, elevating the amount of phosphorus in the manure. Excess phosphorus excretion can lead to environmental problems, such as eutrophication.
The bioavailability of phytate phosphorus can be increased by supplementation of the diet with the enzyme phytase. Also, viable low-phytic acid mutant lines have been developed in several crop species in which the seeds have drastically reduced levels of phytic acid and concomitant increases in inorganic phosphorus. However, reported germination problems have hindered the use of these cultivars thus far.
The use of sprouted grains will reduce the quantity of phytic acids in feed, with no significant reduction of nutritional value.
Biological and physiological roles 
Although undigestable for many animals (as explained above), phytic acid and its metabolites as they occur in seeds and grains have several important roles for the seedling plant. Most notably, phytic acid functions as a phosphorus store, as an energy store, as a source of cations and as a source of myoinositol (a cell wall precursor). Phytic acid is the principal storage forms of phosphorus in plant seeds.
In animal cells, myoinositol polyphosphates are ubiquitous, and phytic acid (myoinositol hexakisphosphate) is the most abundant, with its concentration ranging from 10 to 100 uM in mammalian cells, depending on cell type and developmental stage. This compound is not obtained from the animal diet, but must be synthesized inside the cell from phosphate and inositol (which in turn is produced from glucose, usually in the kidneys). The interaction of intracellular phytic acid with specific intracellular proteins has been investigated in vitro, and these interactions have been found to result in the inhibition or potentiation of the physiological activities of those proteins. The best evidence from these studies suggests an intracellular role for phytic acid as a cofactor in DNA repair by nonhomologous end-joining. Other studies using yeast mutants have also suggested intracellular phytic acid may be involved in mRNA export from the nucleus to the cytosol. There are still major gaps in the understanding of this molecule, and the exact pathways of phytic acid and lower inositol phosphate metabolism are still unknown. As such, the exact physiological roles of intracellular phytic acid are still a matter of debate.
Food science 
Phytic acid is found within the hulls of nuts, seeds, and grains. In-home food preparation techniques can break down the phytic acid in all of these foods. Simply cooking the food will reduce the phytic acid to some degree. More effective methods are soaking in an acid medium, lactic acid fermentation, and sprouting.
Phytic acid has a strong binding affinity to important minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc, although the binding of calcium with phytic acid is pH-dependent and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) can reduce phytic acid's effect on iron. When a mineral binds to phytic acid, it becomes insoluble, precipitates and will be nonabsorbable in the intestines. This process can therefore contribute to mineral deficiencies in people whose diets rely on these foods for their mineral intake, such as those in developing countries. Contrary to that, one study correlated decreased osteoporosis risk with phytic acid consumption. It also acts as an acid, chelating the vitamin niacin, the deficiency of which is known as pellagra. In this regard, it is an antinutrient, despite its possible therapeutic effects (see below). For people with a particularly low intake of essential minerals, especially those in developing countries, this effect can be undesirable.
"Probiotic lactobacilli, and other species of the endogenous digestive microflora, as well, are an important source of the enzyme phytase which catalyses the release of phosphate from phytate and hydrolyses the complexes formed by phytate and metal ions or other cations, rendering them more soluble, ultimately improving and facilitating their intestinal absorption."
|Food||[% minimum dry]||[% maximum dry]|
|Sesame seeds flour||5.36||5.36|
|Whole wheat bread||0.43||1.05|
|Soy protein concentrate||1.24||2.17|
|Food||[% minimum fresh weight]||[% maximum fresh weight]|
Therapeutic uses 
||This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. (July 2012)|
A randomized, controlled trial in breast cancer patients showed no effect on chemotherapy-induced anemia or tumor markers, but the patients reported subjectively feeling better. The United States Food and Drug Administration has listed phytic acid among the 187 fake cancer "cures" consumers should avoid.
Phytic acid is one of few chelating therapies used for uranium removal.
It has been shown to be a required cofactor for YopJ, a toxin from Yersinia pestis. It is also a required cofactor for the related toxin AvrA from Salmonella typhimurium as well as Clostridium difficile Toxin A and Toxin B.
See also 
- Mullaney, Edward J.; Ullah, Abul H.J. "Phytases: attributes, catalytic mechanisms, and applications". United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
- Phytic acid
- Klopfenstein, Terry J.; Angel, Rosalina; Cromwell, Gary; Erickson, Galen E.; Fox, Danny G.; Parsons, Carl; Satter, Larry D.; Sutton, Alan L. et al. (July 2002). "Animal Diet Modification to Decrease the Potential for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Pollution". Council for Agricultural Science and Technology 21.
- Romarheim, O.H.; Zang, C.; Penn, M.; Liu, Y.-J.; Tian, L.-H.; Skrede, A.; Krogdahl, Å.; Storebakken, T. (2008). "Growth and intestinal morphology in cobia (Rachycentron canadum) fed extruded diets with two types of soybean meal partly replacing fish meal". Aquaculture Nutrition 14 (2): 174–180. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2095.2007.00517.x.
- Mallin, Michael A. (2003). Population and Environment 24 (5): 369–85. doi:10.1023/A:1023690824045.
- Ali, M; Shuja, MN; Zahoor, M; Qadri, I (2010). "Phytic acid:how far have we come". African Journal of Biotechnology 9 (11): 1551–1554..
- Guttieri, M. J.; Peterson, K. M.; Souza, E. J. (2006). "Milling and Baking Quality of Low Phytic Acid Wheat". Crop Science 46 (6): 2403–8. doi:10.2135/cropsci2006.03.0137.
- Malleshi, N. G.; Desikachar, H. S. R. (1986). "Nutritive value of malted millet flours". Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 36 (3): 191–6. doi:10.1007/BF01092036.
- Seaman JC, Hutchison JM, Jackson BP, Vulava VM (2003). "In situ treatment of metals in contaminated soils with phytate". Journal of Environmental Quality 32 (1): 153–61. doi:10.2134/jeq2003.0153. PMID 12549554.
- Reddy NR, Sathe SK, Salunkhe DK (1982). "Phytates in legumes and cereals". Adv Food Res 28: 1–92. PMID 6299067.
- Szwergold BS, Graham RA, Brown TR (1987). "Observation of inositol pentakis- and hexakis-phosphates in mammalian tissues by 31P NMR". Biochem Biophys Res Commun 149 (3): 874–881. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(87)90489-X. PMID 3426614.
- Sasakawa N, Sharif M, Hanley MR (1995). "Metabolism and biological-activities of inositol pentakisphosphate and inositol hexakisphosphate". Biochem Pharmacol 50 (2): 137–146. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(95)00059-9. PMID 7543266.
- Hanakahi LA, Bartlet-Jones M, Chappell C, Pappin D, West SC (2000). "Binding of inositol phosphate to DNA-PK and stimulation of double-strand break repair". Cell 102 (6): 721–729. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00061-1. PMID 11030616.
- Norris FA, Ungewickell E, Majerus PW (1995). "Inositol hexakisphosphate binds to clathrin assembly protein 3 (AP-3/AP180) and inhibits clathrin cage assembly in vitro". J Biol Chem 270 (1): 214–217. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.1.214. PMID 7814377.
- York JD, Odom AR, Murphy R, Ives EB, Wente SR (1999). "A phospholipase C-dependent inositol polyphosphate kinase pathway required for efficient messenger RNA export". Science (Washington, D.C.) 285 (5424): 96–100. doi:10.1126/science.285.5424.96. PMID 10390371.
- Shears SB (2001). "Assessing the omnipotence of inositol hexakisphosphate". Cell Signalling 13 (3): 151–158. doi:10.1016/S0898-6568(01)00129-2. PMID 11282453.
- Phytates in cereals and legumes
- Dendougui, Ferial; Schwedt, Georg (2004). "In vitro analysis of binding capacities of calcium to phytic acid in different food samples". European Food Research and Technology 219 (4). doi:10.1007/s00217-004-0912-7.
- Prom-U-Thai, Chanakan; Huang, Longbin; Glahn, Raymond P; Welch, Ross M; Fukai, Shu; Rerkasem, Benjavan (2006). "Iron (Fe) bioavailability and the distribution of anti-Fe nutrition biochemicals in the unpolished, polished grain and bran fraction of five rice genotypes". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86 (8): 1209–15. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2471.
- Hurrell RF (September 2003). "Influence of vegetable protein sources on trace element and mineral bioavailability". The Journal of Nutrition 133 (9): 2973S–7S. PMID 12949395.
- Committee on Food Protection, Food and Nutrition Board, National Research Council (1973). "Phytates". Toxicants Occurring Naturally in Foods. National Academy of Sciences. pp. 363–371. ISBN 978-0-309-02117-3.
- López-González AA, Grases F, Roca P, Mari B, Vicente-Herrero MT, Costa-Bauzá A (December 2008). "Phytate (myo-inositol hexaphosphate) and risk factors for osteoporosis". Journal of Medicinal Food 11 (4): 747–52. doi:10.1089/jmf.2008.0087. PMID 19053869.
- Anderson, Eugene N. (2005). Everyone eats: understanding food and culture. New York: New York University Press. pp. 47–8. ISBN 0-8147-0496-4.
- Famularo G, De Simone C, Pandey V, Sahu AR, Minisola G (2005). "Probiotic lactobacilli: an innovative tool to correct the malabsorption syndrome of vegetarians?". Med. Hypotheses 65 (6): 1132–5. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2004.09.030. PMID 16095846.
- Reddy, N. R.; Sathe, Shridhar K. (2001). Food Phytates. Boca Raton: CRC. ISBN 1-56676-867-5.[page needed]
- Phillippy, Brian Q.; John M. Bland, and Terence J. Evens (December 7, 2002). "Ion Chromatography of Phytate in Roots and Tubers". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (2): 350–3. doi:10.1021/jf025827m. PMID 12517094.
- Macfarlane, Bruce J; Bezwoda, Werner R; Bothwell, Thomas H; Baynes, Roy D; Bothwell, Janet E; MacPhail, Andrew P; Lamparelli, Rosario D; Mayet, Fatima (February 1988). "Inhibitory effect of nuts on iron absorption". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47 (2): 270–274. PMID 3341259. Retrieved July 27, 2011.
- Gordan, Dennis T.; Lucia S. Chao (March, 1984). "Relationship of components in wheat bran and spinach to iron bioavailability in the anemic rat". Journal of Nutrition 114 (3).
- "From Antinutrient to Phytonutrient: Phytic Acid Gains Respect". Environmental Nutrition (Belvoir Media Group). April 2004.[unreliable source?]
- Bacić I, Druzijanić N, Karlo R, Skifić I, Jagić S (2010). "Efficacy of IP6 + inositol in the treatment of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: prospective, randomized, pilot clinical study". J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res. 29 (1): 12. doi:10.1186/1756-9966-29-12. PMC 2829500. PMID 20152024.
- "187 Fake Cancer "Cures" Consumers Should Avoid". Food and Drug Administration.: Listed as IP-6 Inositol Hexaphosphate
- Cebrian D, Tapia A, Real A, Morcillo MA (2007). "Inositol hexaphosphate: a potential chelating agent for uranium". Radiation Protection Dosimetry 127 (1–4): 477–9. doi:10.1093/rpd/ncm356. PMID 17627956.
- Mittal R, Peak-Chew SY, Sade RS, Vallis Y, McMahon HT (2010). "The Acetyltransferase Activity of the Bacterial Toxin YopJ of Yersinia Is Activated by Eukaryotic Host Cell Inositol Hexakisphosphate". J Biol Chem 285 (26): 19927–34. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.126581. PMC 2888404. PMID 20430892.