Phytolacca americana

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Phytolacca americana
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Phytolaccaceae
Genus: Phytolacca
Species: P. americana
Binomial name
Phytolacca americana
L.
Pokeberry shoots, cooked, boiled, drained, without salt
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 84 kJ (20 kcal)
Carbohydrates 3.1 g
- Sugars 1.6 g
- Dietary fiber 1.5 g
Fat 0.4 g
Protein 2.3 g
Vitamin A equiv. 435 μg (54%)
- beta-carotene 5200 μg (48%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin 1747 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.07 mg (6%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.25 mg (21%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 1.1 mg (7%)
Vitamin B6 0.111 mg (9%)
Vitamin C 82 mg (99%)
Vitamin K 108 μg (103%)
Calcium 53 mg (5%)
Iron 1.2 mg (9%)
Magnesium 14 mg (4%)
Manganese 0.336 mg (16%)
Phosphorus 33 mg (5%)
Potassium 184 mg (4%)
Sodium 18 mg (1%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

American Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) is a large semi-succulent herbaceous perennial plant growing up to 10 feet (3 metres) in height. It is native to eastern North America, the Midwest, and the Gulf Coast, with more scattered populations in the far West. It is also known as Virginia poke,[1][2] American nightshade, cancer jalap, coakum, garget,[2] inkberry, pigeon berry,[1][2] pocan,[2] pokeroot,[1] pokeweed,[1] pokeberry,[1] redweed, scoke,[2] red ink plant and chui xu shang lu (in Chinese medicine).[1] Sometimes the plant is also referred to as poke sallet[3] (or polk salad).[4] Parts of this plant are highly toxic to livestock and humans, and it is considered a major pest by farmers. Nonetheless, some parts can be used as food, medicine, or poison if properly prepared.

The plant has a large white taproot, green or red stems, and large, simple leaves. White flowers are followed by purple to almost black berries, which are a good food source for songbirds such as Gray Catbird, Northern Cardinal, Brown Thrasher, and Northern Mockingbird.

Morphology[edit]

Plant Type: Perennial herbaceous plant which can reach a height of 10 feet (3 metres), but is usually 4 feet (1.2 metres) to 6 feet (2 metres). However, the plant must be a few years old before the root grows large enough to support this size. The stem is often red as the plant matures. There is an upright, erect central stem early in the season, which changes to a spreading, horizontal form later in the season with the weight of the berries. Plant dies back to roots each winter. Stem has a chambered pith.[citation needed]

Leaves: The leaves are alternate with coarse texture with moderate porosity. Leaves can reach sixteen inches in length. Each leaf is entire. Leaves are medium green and smooth with what some characterize as an unpleasant odor.[citation needed]

Flowers: The flowers have 5 regular parts with upright stamens and are up to 0.2 inches (5 mm) wide. They have white petal-like sepals without true petals, on white pedicles and peduncles in an upright or drooping raceme, which darken as the plant fruits. Blooms first appear in early summer and continue into early fall.[citation needed]

Fruit: A shiny dark purple berry held in racemous clusters on pink pedicels with a pink peduncle. Pedicles without berries have a distinctive rounded five part calyx. Fruits are round with a flat indented top and bottom. Immature berries are green, turning white and then blackish purple.[citation needed]

Root: Thick central taproot which grows deep and spreads horizontally. Rapid growth. Tan cortex, white pulp, moderate number of rootlets. Transversely cut root slices show concentric rings. No nitrogen fixation ability.[5][1]

Habitat and range[edit]

Broadly distributed in fields and waste places, and usually found in edge habitats. The seeds do not require stratification and are dispersed by berry-feeding birds. Adapted to coarse or fine soils with moderate moisture, high calcium tolerance but low salinity tolerance, pH tolerance from 4.7-8. Grows well in sun or shade and readily survives fire due to its ability to resprout from the roots. In recent years the plant appears to have increased in populated places. Found in most of the United States except the Mountain States, Alaska and Hawaii.[1][6]

Known constituents[edit]

Various sources discuss notable chemical constituents of the plant.[1][7]

Triterpene saponins: Phytolaccoside A,B,C,D,E,F,G (esculentoside E), phytolaccagenin, jaligonic acid, esculentic acid, 3-oxo-30-carbomethoxy-23-norolean-12-en-28-oic acid, phytolaccagenic acid, oleanolic acid.[8]

Triterpene alcohols: α-spinasterol, α-spinasteryl-β-D-glucoside, 6-palmityl-Δ7-stigmasterol-Δ-D-glucoside, 6-palmytityl-α-spinasteryl-6-D-glucoside.

Others: phytolaccatoxin, canthomicrol, astragalin, protein PAP-R, Pokeweed mitogen, (PMW, a series of glycoproteins), caryophyllene, lectins, tannin, starch.

Nutritional information per 100 grams dry weight of shoots:[5]

Standardization: Phytolacca is not generally standardized since it is not marketed to public and various properties are being considered for standardization for different uses.

Toxicity[edit]

Pokeweed poisonings were common in eastern North America during the 19th century, especially from the use of tinctures as antirheumatic preparations and from ingestion of berries and roots that were mistaken for parsnip, Jerusalem artichoke, or horseradish.[9] Deaths are currently uncommon, although there are cases of emesis and catharsis, but at least one death of a child who consumed crushed seeds in a juice has occurred.[citation needed]

Toxic components of the plant include saponins based on the triterepene genins phytolaccagenin, jaligonic acid, phytolaccagenic acid (phytolaccinic acid), esculentic acid, and pokeberrygenin.[8] These include phytolaccosides A, B, D, E, and G, and phytolaccasaponins B, E, and G. Phytolaccigenin causes hemagglutination.[10][11] Additional toxic constituents which have been identified include the alkaloids phytolaccine and phytolaccotoxin, as well as a glycoprotein.[12]

Uses[edit]

Food uses[edit]

Phytolacca americana is used as a folk medicine and as food, although all parts of it must be considered toxic unless, as folk recipes claim, it is "properly prepared". The root is never eaten and cannot be made edible.[13]

The seeds are supposed to be highly toxic, yet the berries are reportedly cooked into a jelly or pie, and seeds are strained out or pass through unless bitten. Cooking is believed to deactivate toxins in the berries by some; others attribute toxicity only to the seeds within the berries.

The leaves of young plants are sometimes collected as a spring green potherb and eaten after repeated blanchings. Shoots are also blanched with several changes of water and eaten as a substitute for asparagus. They become cathartic as they advance to maturity.[14]

The poisonous principles are found in highest concentrations in the rootstock, less in the mature leaves and stems, and least in the fruits.[citation needed] Green fruits are supposedly slightly more toxic.[vague][citation needed] Young leaves, if collected before acquiring a red color, are said by some to be edible if boiled for 5 minutes, rinsed, and reboiled. However, it may be difficult to identify exactly when leaves have no red color whatsoever; an incorrect picking may result in a poisoning. Berries are toxic when raw but cooked juice is reportedly potable, whereas the seeds are supposed to remain toxic after cooking. Pokeberry juice is added to other juices for jelly by those who believe it can relieve the pain of arthritis. In a traditional Cherokee recipe for fried poke stalks, young stalks are harvested while still tender, peeled to remove most of the toxin, washed, then cut into pieces and fried like okra with cornmeal.

Young pokeweed leaves boiled three times to reduce the toxin, discarding the water after each boiling, results in "poke salit" or "poke salad",[15] or "poke sallet",[16] and is occasionally available commercially. Many authorities advise against eating pokeweed even after thrice boiling, as traces of the toxin may still remain. All agree pokeweed should never be eaten uncooked. The cultural significance of poke salad is referenced in the 1969 hit song "Polk Salad Annie", written and performed by Tony Joe White, and famously covered by Elvis Presley, as well as other bands such as the El Orbits of Houston, Texas. Poke sallet festivals are held annually in Gainesboro, Tennessee, Blanchard, Louisiana, Harlan, Kentucky and Arab, Alabama.

Since pioneer times,[vague] pokeweed has been used as a folk remedy to treat many ailments. Dried berries were ingested whole as a treatment for boils, taken one berry per day for seven days.[citation needed] Grated pokeroot was used by Native Americans as a poultice to treat inflammations and rashes of the breast.[citation needed] Independent researchers are investigating phytolacca's use in treating AIDS and cancer patients.[17]

Ingestion of poisonous parts of the plant may cause severe stomach cramping, nausea with persistent diarrhea and vomiting, sometimes bloody, slow and difficult breathing, weakness, spasms, hypertension, severe convulsions, and death.[medical citation needed] However, consuming fewer than 10 uncooked berries is generally harmless to adults.[citation needed] Several investigators have reported deaths in children following the ingestion of uncooked berries or pokeberry juice. Severe poisonings have been reported in adults who ingested mature pokeweed leaves and following the ingestion of tea brewed from one-half teaspoonful of powdered pokeroot.

Some pokeweeds are also grown as ornamental plants, mainly for their attractive berries; a number of cultivars have been selected for larger fruit panicles.

Pokeweeds are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Giant Leopard Moth.

Other uses[edit]

A patent has been filed to use poke toxins to control zebra mussels.[18]

Pokeweed was used by Indigenous peoples of the Americas in herbal remedies as a heart stimulant and to treat cancer, rheumatism, itching, and syphilis.[17] It is also used in traditional Chinese medicine.[1]

Pokeweed berries can be processed to yield a red ink or dye.[19][20]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "USDA GRIN taxonomy". 
  2. ^ a b c d e Bailey, L.H.; Bailey, E.Z.; the staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium (1976). Hortus third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-02-505470-7. 
  3. ^ Definition of poke sallet on the Poke Sallet Fest website, Gainsboro, Tennessee. Here it is used to refer to the plant itself, although the term also refers to the cooked leaves of the plant, a traditional food in parts of the southern US.
  4. ^ Referenced in the 1968 song by Tony Joe White.
  5. ^ a b Phytolacca americana - Plants For A Future database report
  6. ^ PLANTS Profile for Phytolacca americana (American pokeweed) | USDA PLANTS
  7. ^ Chinese Herbal Medicine, Materia Medica 3rd Edition. Bensky, Dan; Steven Clavey, Erich Stoger. Eastland Press, 2004.
  8. ^ a b Kang SS, Woo WS (1980). "Triterpenes from the berries of Phytolacca americana". J Nat Prod 43 (4): 510–3. doi:10.1021/np50010a013. 
  9. ^ Lewis WH, Smith PR (December 1979). "Poke root herbal tea poisoning". JAMA 242 (25): 2759–60. doi:10.1001/jama.242.25.2759. PMID 501875. 
  10. ^ Tang W, Eisenbrand G. Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin: Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Use in Traditional and Modern Medicine . New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 1992:765
  11. ^ Suga Y, Maruyama Y, Kawanishi S, Shoji J (1978). "Studies on the constituents of phytolaccaceous plants. I. On the structures of phytolaccasaponin B, E and G from the roots of Phytolacca americana L.". Chem Pharm Bull 26: 520–5. 
  12. ^ "Canadian Poisonous Plants Information System". Retrieved 2009-12-03. 
  13. ^ Iowa Cooperative Extension Service publication Pm-746 "POKEWEED"
  14. ^ [1] Harvey Wickes Felter and John Uri Lloyd 1898. King's American Dispensatory.
  15. ^ Adams, Allison. "A Mess of Poke". Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  16. ^ Definition of poke sallet on the Poke Sallet Fest website, Gainsboro, Tennessee. Here it is used to refer to the plant itself.
  17. ^ a b American Cancer Society. "Pokeweed". 
  18. ^ US 5252330  Method of controling zebra mussels with extract of Phytolacca dodecandra
  19. ^ "Poke (root, berry and ink)". 
  20. ^ "Pokeweed". Bio.brandeis.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-04. 

External links[edit]