||It has been suggested that Botanical additives be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2013.|
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants (phyto means "plant" in Greek). Some are responsible for color and other organoleptic properties, such as the deep purple of blueberries and the smell of garlic. The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may have biological significance, for example carotenoids or flavonoids, but are not established as essential nutrients.There may be as many as 4,000 different phytochemicals having potential to affect diseases such as cancer, stroke or metabolic syndrome.
Phytochemicals as candidate nutrients
Without specific knowledge of their cellular actions or mechanisms, phytochemicals have been considered as possible drugs for millennia. For example, Hippocrates may have prescribed willow tree leaves to abate fever. Salicin, having anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, was originally extracted from the bark of the white willow tree and later synthetically produced to become the staple, over-the-counter drug aspirin.
Some phytochemicals with physiological properties may be elements rather than complex organic molecules. For example, selenium, which is abundant in many fruits and vegetables, is a dietary mineral involved with major metabolic pathways, including thyroid hormone metabolism and immune function. Particularly, it is an essential nutrient and cofactor for the enzymatic synthesis of glutathione, an endogenous antioxidant.
Clinical trials and health claim status
Lycopene from tomatoes has been tested in human studies for cardiovascular diseases and prostate cancer. These studies, however, did not attain sufficient scientific agreement to conclude an effect on any disease. The FDA position reads:
"Very limited and preliminary scientific research suggests that eating one-half to one cup of tomatoes and/or tomato sauce a week may reduce the risk of prostate cancer. The United States Food and Drug Administration concludes that there is little scientific evidence supporting this claim."[undue weight? ]
Phytochemical-based dietary supplements can also be purchased. According to the American Cancer Society, "Available scientific evidence does not support claims that taking phytochemical supplements is as good for long-term health as consuming the fruits, vegetables, beans, and grains from which they are taken."
Food processing and phytochemicals
Phytochemicals in freshly harvested plant foods may be degraded by processing techniques, including cooking. For this reason, industrially processed foods likely contain fewer phytochemicals than fresh or frozen foods, and therefore would not contribute to dietary intake that may lower risk of preventable diseases. The main cause of phytochemical loss from cooking is thermal decomposition.
A converse exists in the case of carotenoids, such as lycopene present in tomatoes, which may remain stable or increase in content from cooking due to liberation from cellular membranes in the cooked food. Food processing techniques like mechanical processing can also free carotenoids and other phytochemicals from the food matrix, thus increasing dietary intake.
- US FDA, Guidance for Industry: Evidence-Based Review System for the Scientific Evaluation of Health Claims
- "Fruits and Veggies, More Matters. What are phytochemicals?". Produce for Better Health Foundation. 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- "Micronutrient Information Center: Phytochemicals". Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- Sneader, W. (2000). "The discovery of aspirin: A reappraisal". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 321 (7276): 1591–1594. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7276.1591. PMC 1119266. PMID 11124191.
- Landau E (22 Dec 2010). "From a tree, a 'miracle' called aspirin". CNN. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
- Brown, KM; Arthur, JR (2001). "Selenium, selenoproteins and human health: a review". Public health nutrition 4 (2B): 593–9. doi:10.1079/PHN2001143. PMID 11683552.
- Papp, LV; Lu, J; Holmgren, A; Khanna, KK (2007). "From selenium to selenoproteins: synthesis, identity, and their role in human health". Antioxidants & redox signaling 9 (7): 775–806. doi:10.1089/ars.2007.1528. PMID 17508906.
- [non-primary source needed]Qualified Health Claims Subject to Enforcement Discretion, Docket No. 2004Q-0201, US Food and Drug Administration
- "Phytochemical". American Cancer Society. 17 January 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Bongoni, R; Steenbekkers, L.P.A; Verkerk, R; van Boekel, M.A.J.S; Dekker, M (2013). "Studying consumer behaviour related to the quality of food: A case on vegetable preparation affecting sensory and health attributes". Trends in Food Science & Technology 33 (2): 139–145. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2013.08.004.
- Bongoni, R; Verkerk, R; Steenbekkers, B; Dekker, M; Stieger. "Evaluation of Different Cooking Conditions on Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) to Improve the Nutritional Value and Consumer Acceptance.". Plant foods for human nutrition. doi:10.1007/s11130-014-0420-2.
- Palermo, M; Pellegrini, N; Fogliano, V (2014). "The effect of cooking on the phytochemical content of vegetables". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 94 (6): 1057–70. doi:10.1002/jsfa.6478. PMID 24227349.
- Liu, RH (2004). "Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action". Journal of Nutrition 134 (12 Suppl): 3479S–3485S. PMID 15570057.
- Rao, AV; Rao, LG (2007). "Carotenoids and human health". Pharmacological research 55 (3): 207–16. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2007.01.012. PMID 17349800.
- Agarwal, A; Shen, H; Agarwal, S; Rao, AV (2001). "Lycopene Content of Tomato Products: Its Stability, Bioavailability and in Vivo Antioxidant Properties". Journal of medicinal food 4 (1): 9–15. doi:10.1089/10966200152053668. PMID 12639283.
- Dewanto, V; Wu, X; Adom, KK; Liu, RH (2002). "Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (10): 3010–4. doi:10.1021/jf0115589. PMID 11982434.
- Hotz, C; Gibson, R. S. (2007). "Traditional food-processing and preparation practices to enhance the bioavailability of micronutrients in plant-based diets". The Journal of nutrition 137 (4): 1097–100. PMID 17374686.
- Higdon, J. An Evidence – Based Approach to Dietary Phytochemicals. 2007. Thieme. ISBN 978-1-58890-408-9
- Rosa, L.A. de la / Alvarez-Parrilla, E. / González-Aguilar, G.A. (eds.) Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals: Chemistry, Nutritional Value and Stability. 2010. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-8138-0320-3
- Bongoni R, Steenbekkers LPA, Verkerk R, van Boekel MAJS, Dekker M. Studying consumer behaviour related to the quality of food: A case on vegetable preparation affecting sensory and health attributes. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2013;33(2):139-45.
- Rao AV, Rao LG. Carotenoids and human health. Pharmacological Research. 2007;55(3):207-16.
- Liu RH. Potential Synergy of Phytochemicals in Cancer Prevention: Mechanism of Action. J Nutr. 2004;134(12):3479S-85.
- Phytochemical Database - United States Department of Agriculture
- Phytochemicals at LPI - Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University