Piaggio P.180 Avanti
|First flight||26 September 1986|
|Introduction||30 September 1990|
Italian Armed Forces
AirGO Flugservice GmbH
|Number built||216 delivered as of November 2011|
US$ 7 million
The Piaggio P180 Avanti is an Italian executive transport aircraft with twin turboprop engines mounted in pusher configuration. It seats up to nine passengers in a pressurized cabin, and may be flown by one or two pilots. The design is of three-surface configuration, having both a small forward wing and a conventional tail plane as well as its main wing, with the wing spars passing outside of the passenger cabin area.
Design studies began in 1979 and designs were tested in wind tunnels in Italy and the United States in 1980 and 1981. A collaboration with Learjet to develop the aircraft began in 1983 but ended on 13 January 1986, with Piaggio continuing development on its own. The first prototype flew on 23 September 1986. American and Italian certification was obtained on 2 October 1990. Learjet's influence can be seen in the two "delta fins" mounted on the bottom of the tail, as found on most Learjets; these devices help provide yaw stability and pitch stability at high angles of incidence.
The first 12 fuselages were manufactured in Wichita, with H & H Parts and Plessey Midwest, then flown to Italy for final assembly. Avanti Aviation Wichita ran out of money in 1994; the project languished until a group of investors led by Piero Ferrari became involved in 1998. The 100th aircraft was delivered in October 2005 and the 150th in May 2008. Piaggio has reported that, as of October 2010, the Avanti and Avanti II fleets have now logged over 500,000 flight hours.
An improved Avanti II obtained European and U.S. certification in November 2005. Six months later, 70 planes had been ordered, including 36 by Avantair. The Avanti II features uprated Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6 turboprop engines and flies about 18 km/h (11 mph) faster, with better fuel economy; an all-new "glass panel" avionics suite reduces cockpit clutter. In addition to heading, attitude and navigation information, flat panel color LCD displays add collision avoidance (TCAS), ground proximity (TAWS) and real-time graphic weather depiction.
The Avanti is marketed as being faster than other turboprops and many mid-sized jets, while being up to 40% more fuel efficient than market-competing jets.
The Avanti's turboprop engines are placed on a mid-set, high aspect ratio wing located just behind the cabin. The three-surface design incorporates both a T-tail and a pair of small, fixed forewings having slight anhedral and landing flaps. On the Avanti II these flaps automatically deploy in concert with main wing flaps. This reduces the load on the tail plane, even when the flaps are deployed, by reducing the pitch-down moment created by the deployment of the main wing flaps. This in turn allows the size of both the tail plane and the main wing to be reduced. This particular three-lifting-surface configuration was patented in 1982.
The forward wing's angle of incidence relative to the fuselage is set so that it stalls before the main wing, producing an automatic nose-down effect prior to the onset of main wing stall; its five-degree anhedral (negative dihedral) keeps the stream wash interference clear of the engine inlets, the main wing and the tail plane.
The cabin cross-section varies continuously along the length of the aircraft; the shape approximates a NACA airfoil section, and the slowly changing curve helps prolong laminar flow on the front of the fuselage. Piaggio claims that the fuselage contributes up to 20% of the Avanti's total lift, with the front and rear wing providing the remaining 80%. Due to the unusual fuselage shape, the mid cabin is considerably wider than the cockpit. The front and rear airfoils are custom sections designed by Dr. Jerry Gregorek of Ohio State University's Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory to achieve a drag-reducing 50% laminar flow at cruise. The company claims the overall design of the P180 Avanti II enables the wing to be 34% smaller than on conventional aircraft.
The P180 is said to have good fuel efficiency relative to other small turbojets flying in the same speed and altitude range. Flight International stated: "The Avanti has no direct turboprop competitors, its closest jet rivals are the Raytheon Premier I and the Cessna Citation CJ2+... Piaggio says low-drag laminar flow is maintained to around 50% of wing chord, compared with around 20–25% for conventional tractor turboprops where propeller wash disturbs the airflow over the wing... specific air range at high altitude is 3.4km/kg (0.84nm/lb) compared with around 2km/kg (0.49nm/lb) for current jets or 2.7km/kg (0.67nm/lb) for other turboprops." By this estimate, mileage is 70% better per-fuel-unit than comparable jet aircraft, however this extreme efficiency is achieved only at a relatively slow 315 KTAS and FL410. P180 Avanti II Specifications now show slightly lower numbers for specific range of 3.1 km/kg (0.76 nm/lb).
Interior noise is lower than conventional turboprop aircraft, because the propellers and engine exhausts are located behind the cabin. Piaggio quotes 68 dBA. However, due to the strongly disturbed flow in which the pusher propellers operate, the exterior noise is higher. The exterior noise level and its higher pitched sound has been shown to be the result primarily of the interaction of the turbine engine exhaust flows and the five bladed pusher props (est. +9 dB). On take off, the Avanti has been measured at 81.9 dBA, slightly lower than the Beechcraft King Air at 82.8 dBA. This is below FAA stage 3 noise limits, which set a maximum of 89 EPNdB for take off. However, the P180 has been the subject of noise complaints at airports, such as Naples Municipal Airport, Florida, where the airport authority determined it was the noisiest aircraft using that facility. Alan Parker, chairman of the Naples Municipal Airport Authority's technical committee, described the Avanti as "irritating loud" and compared the high pitched sound "to fingernails on a chalk board".
The Piaggio P.180 Avanti has a sea-level, standard day, maximum gross weight takeoff distance of 869 m (2,851 ft) and a landing roll of 872 m (2,861 ft).
Deliveries were at a high of 30 in 2008, but only two in 2013. Piaggio is producing an updated version called EVO, costing $7.4 million.
- P.180 Avanti
- First production variant.
- P180 M
- Military version with a combination passenger/freighter configuration for use as a VIP and light utility transport.
- P.180 RM
- Variant for use in radio calibration.
- P.180 AMB
- Air ambulance variant.
- P.180 APH
- Aerial cartography.
- P.180 Avanti II
- Variant with improved avionics and engines.
- Maritime Patrol Aircraft
- Variant of the Avanti II with larger wing.
- Piaggio-Selex P.1HH Hammerhead
- Medium-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle based on the Avanti II airframe, with an increased wingspan and the ability to carry up to 1,100 pounds (500 kg) of weapons. First flight anticipated in August–September 2013.[needs update]
The Avanti is operated by charter companies and small feeder airlines, and is also used as a business aircraft. The fractional aircraft operator Avantair had a fleet of 56 aircraft before they went bankrupt and the fleet was liquidated.
- Italian Air Force – 17
- Italian Army
- Italian Navy
- Guardia di Finanza
- Corps of the Port Captaincies – Coast Guard
- Polizia di Stato
- Corpo Forestale dello Stato
- Corpo Nazionale dei Vigili del Fuoco
- Ente Nazionale per l'Assistenza al Volo
Specifications (P180 Avanti)
Data from Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999–2000
- Crew: one or two pilots
- Capacity: up to nine passengers
- Cabin dimensions: 1.75 m (5 ft 9 in) high, 1.85 m (6 ft 1 in) wide, 4.45 m (14 ft 7 in) long
- Payload: 907 kg (2,000 lb)
- Length: 14.41 m (47 ft 3½ in)
- Wingspan: 14.03 m (46 ft 0½ in)
- Height: 3.97 m (13 ft 0¾ in)
- Wing area: 16 m² (172.2 ft²)
- Foreplane area: 2.19 m² (23.59 ft²)
- Horizontal stabilizer area: 3.83 m² (41.27 ft²)
- Empty weight: 3,400 kg (7,500 lb)
- Useful load: 1,860 kg (4,100 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 5,239 kg (11,550 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-66 turboprop, 634 kW (850 shp) each
- Maximum speed: 737 km/h (398 kn, 458 mph)
- Cruise speed: 732 km/h (395 kn, 455 mph) cruise at 30,000 ft (9,144 m), 660 km/h (356 kn, 410 mph) economy cruise at 39,000 ft (11,887 m)
- Stall speed: 172 km/h (93 kn, 107 mph)
- Range: 2,795 km (1,509 NM, 1,737 mi) at 11,900 m (39,042 ft) IFR
- Service ceiling: 12,500 m (41,010 ft)
- Rate of climb: 15 m/s (2,953 ft/min)
- Wing loading: 327 kg/m² (67.1 lb/ft²)
- Power/mass: 0.24 kW/kg (6.79 lb/hp
- Fuel economy: 0.84 NM/Lbs @FL410 and 316 KTAS)
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Comparable aircraft of historic interest
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