Piano Concerto (Grieg)
The Piano Concerto in A minor, Op. 16, composed by Edvard Grieg (1843–1907) in 1868, was the only concerto Grieg completed. It is one of his most popular works and among the most popular of all piano concerti.
The concerto is in three movements:
- Allegro molto moderato (A minor)
- Adagio (D-flat major)
- Allegro moderato molto e marcato - Quasi presto - Andante maestoso (A minor → F major → A minor → A major)
The first movement is noted for the timpani roll in the first bar that leads to a dramatic piano flourish. The movement is in the Sonata form. The movement finishes with a virtuosic cadenza and a similar flourish as in the beginning.
The second movement is a lyrical movement in D-flat major, which leads directly into the third movement.
The third movement opens in A minor 4/4 time with an energetic theme (Theme 1), which is followed by a lyrical theme in F major (Theme 2). The movement returns to Theme 1. Following this recapitulation is the 3/4 A major Quasi presto section, which consists of a variation of Theme 1. The movement concludes with the Andante maestoso in A major, which consists of a dramatic rendition of Theme 2 (as opposed to the lyrical fashion with which Theme 2 is introduced).
Performance time of the whole concerto is around 30 minutes.
The concerto was originally scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in A and B flat, 2 bassoons, 2 horns in E and E flat, 2 trumpets in C and B flat, 2 trombones, tuba, timpani and strings (violins, violas, cellos and double basses). He later added 2 horns and changed the tuba to a third trombone.
History and influences
The work is among Grieg's earliest important works, written by the 24-year-old composer in 1868 in Søllerød, Denmark, during one of his visits there to benefit from the climate, which was warmer than that of his native Norway.
Grieg's concerto is often compared to the Piano Concerto of Robert Schumann — it is in the same key, the opening descending flourish on the piano is similar, and the overall style is considered to be closer to Schumann than any other single composer. Incidentally, both wrote only one concerto for piano. Grieg had heard Schumann's concerto played by Clara Schumann in Leipzig in 1858 (1859 is given by alternative sources), and was greatly influenced by Schumann's style generally, having been taught the piano by Schumann's friend, Ernst Ferdinand Wenzel. Compact disc recordings often pair the two concertos.
Additionally, Grieg's work provides evidence of his interest in Norwegian folk music; the opening flourish is based around the motif of a falling minor second (see interval) followed by a falling major third, which is typical of the folk music of Grieg's native country. This specific motif occurs in other works by Grieg, including the String Quartet No. 1. In the last movement of the concerto, similarities to the halling (a Norwegian folk dance) and imitations of the Hardanger fiddle (the Norwegian folk fiddle) have been detected.
The work was premiered by Edmund Neupert on April 3, 1869 in Copenhagen, with Holger Simon Paulli conducting. Some sources say that Grieg himself, an excellent pianist, was the intended soloist, but he was unable to attend the premiere owing to commitments with an orchestra in Christiania (now Oslo). Among those who did attend the premiere were the Danish composer Niels Gade and the Russian pianist Anton Rubinstein, who provided his own piano for the occasion. Neupert was also the dedicatee of the second edition of the concerto (Rikard Nordraak was the original dedicatee), and it was said that he himself composed the first movement cadenza.
The Norwegian premiere in Christiania followed on August 7, 1869, and the piece was later heard in Germany in 1872 and England in 1874. At Grieg's visit to Franz Liszt in Rome in 1870, Liszt played the notes a prima vista before an audience of musicians and gave very good comments on Grieg's work, which influenced him later. The work was first published in Leipzig in 1872, but only after Johan Svendsen intervened on Grieg's behalf.
Grieg revised the work at least seven times, usually in subtle ways, but amounting to over 300 differences from the original orchestration. In one of these revisions, he undid Franz Liszt's suggestion to give the second theme of the first movement (as well as the first theme of the second) to the trumpet rather than to the cello. The final version of the concerto was completed only a few weeks before Grieg's death, and it is this version that has achieved worldwide popularity. The original 1868 version has been recorded, by Love Derwinger, with the Norrköping Symphony Orchestra under Jun'ichi Hirokami.
Grieg worked on a transcription of the concerto for two solo pianos, which was completed by Károly Thern. The premiere recording of this version was by the British two-piano team of Anthony Goldstone and Caroline Clemmow.
On April 2, 1951, Russian-born American pianist Simon Barere collapsed while playing the first few bars of the concerto, in a performance with conductor Eugene Ormandy and the Philadelphia Orchestra at Carnegie Hall in New York. He died backstage shortly afterwards. It was to have been Barere's first performance of the work.
In 1882–83 Grieg worked on a second piano concerto in B minor, but it was never completed. The sketches for the concerto have been recorded by pianist Einar Steen-Nøkleberg. In 1997, the Belgian composer Laurent Beeckmans elaborated a full piano concerto from these sketches, which was first performed in London on 3 May 2003.
Popular culture references
The enduring popularity of Grieg's Piano Concerto has ensured its use in a wide variety of contexts.
- The first movement's coda features in the film Intermezzo starring Leslie Howard and Ingrid Bergman.
- The Concerto was featured in the film The Seventh Veil (1945) as the piece played by the young concert pianist (Ann Todd; the uncredited pianist was Eileen Joyce).
- In the early 3-D-movie Windjammer (1958, movie no longer extant) a young Norwegian Navy cadet practices the concerto on the Norwegian Navy's training ship Christian Radich while crossing the Atlantic on the way to Boston where a performance with that cadet as soloist has been arranged in advance with the Boston Symphony under Arthur Fiedler.
- It was famously parodied in Franz Reizenstein's Concerto Popolare of 1959 (written for Gerard Hoffnung's music festival).
- The opening theme of the first movement was used in the song "Asia Minor", a top-ten pop hit from 1961. The title of the song was also based on the key of the concerto, A minor.
- Excerpts from the first movement are incorporated into the number "Rosemary", in the musical How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying (1961).
- The concerto was used in a sketch by the British comedians Morecambe and Wise in their 1971 Christmas show. Conducted by André Previn, with Eric Morecambe as soloist, Morecambe claims he is playing "all the right notes, but not necessarily in the right order". In fact, he was playing a simplified version of the correct music, but in a completely inappropriate style.
- It is also featured in the 1980s series Beauty and the Beast in the first season's finale entitled "A Happy Life". (In this case, however, the piece is played by a solo piano, without an orchestra.)
- Parts of it were also used in the movie The Adventures of Milo and Otis (1986).
- The first movement is used in Adrian Lyne's 1997 film Lolita.
- In 2004, it was featured in a Nike commercial.
- The second movement was used in a series of British 'Bisto Aah Nights' adverts (released August 2006), in which many people vowed to stay home more often for family dinners.
- The opening piano piece in the first movement is featured in a 2008 Range Rover commercial.
- The first movement was used in David Lynch and Mark Frost's cult TV show Twin Peaks season 2; episode 21.
- The first movement was used by composer Mark Snow in The X-Files episode Salvage.
- Crossover pianist Maksim Mrvica plays a modernised version in his album The Piano Player.
- The comedian Bill Bailey is a skilled musician, and has used Grieg's piano concerto for comic effect; in the TV Series Black Books it is played by his character Manny Bianco, and it is cited as an example in his solo mock-scholarly sketch on cockney music.
- The first five bars are played by pianist Richard Hyung-ki Joo in one of "A Little Nightmare Music's" skits.
- The second movement is used in Sid Meier's Civilization V when playing as European civilizations.
This performance is by the University of Washington Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Peter Eros. The piano soloist is Neal O'Doan.
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This performance is by the Skidmore College Orchestra. It is courtesy of Musopen.
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- Jacobson, Julius H.; Kevin Kline (2002). The classical music experience: discover the music of the world's greatest composers. New York: Sourcebooks. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-57071-950-9. Though not as popular as the Peer Gynt suites, this book says.
- Horton, John (1952). (subscription required) "Edvard Grieg". In Ralph Hill. The Concerto. Melbourne: Penguin Books. pp. 248–251.
- Oelmann, Klaus Henning (1993): Edvard Grieg - Versuch einer Orientierung. Egelsbach Köln New York: Verlag Hänsel-Hohenhausen, p. 246.
- Grieg and the Danish Connection
- Foster, Beryl (2007). The songs of Edvard Grieg. New York: Boydell Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-84383-343-7.
- BACKHAUS, WILHELM (1884 - 1969) at naxos.com
- International Record Review 8 (1): 26. 2007.
- Divine Art
- The Remington Site: Simon Barere
- Jacques Leiser: My Father, Simon Barere
- Hippopress: The NH Philharmonic's 100th Season