Piano Sonata No. 3 (Beethoven)
Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 3 in C major, Op. 2, No. 3, is a sonata written for solo piano, composed in 1796. It is dedicated to Joseph Haydn and is often referred to as Beethoven's first virtuosic piano sonata. It is both the weightiest and longest of the three Opus 2 sonatas.  It presents many difficulties, including difficult trills, awkward hand movements, and wrist rotation.
The sonata, in C major, consists of four movements:
The first movement follows the Sonata-Allegro format of the Classical period. The movement opens with the main theme in the tonic key, beginning with a double-thirds trill-like pattern. This pattern leads into an energetic outburst of a broken-chord and broken-octave section. The second theme of the exposition is written in G Major, the dominant key of C Major. The second theme starts with a descending G minor, which is very beautiful. Then the forte shows up and leads to a very rich melody with left and right hand. Then a similar outburst of a broken-chord and broken-octave sections appears in fortissimo. Then it ends with some difficult trills and an octave scale. In the Development section, the composer opens it by improvising on trill patterns introduced in the end of the exposition, which is much difficult. Following a broken-chords section filled with harmony changes, the main theme is restated in D Major (pianissimo), the supertonic key of C Major. Then a fortissimo and Beethoven's very common syncopations appears in the music giving a rhythm, this continues on to the resolution. The second theme is just a key change from G Major and C major. This music is also an exception because Cadenzas do not usually appears in any other Beethoven's music other than concertos. The cadenza is very light and vibrant as well and it ends with a trill of the right hand. Then the first theme's trill reappears in the Coda, then it becomes fortissimo and ends with a C Major octave scale.
The second movement is marked Adagio and written in the key of E Major. This is written in the style of a string quartet, as there are four clear voices. The middle section, in E minor, contains numerous examples of Romanticism, and is considered a prelude to the master's later sonatas. This is perhaps one of the most beautifully written slow movements by Beethoven.
The third movement, as Scherzo, is written in Minuet-Trio form. It opens with a joke-like statement, and the composer uses some polyphony. The trio is in the relative minor key of C Major (A minor) and contains running arpeggios in the right hand with the left hand playing a melodic line in octave form. The coda of this short movement ends the Scherzo with a perfect cadence.
The final movement is in the Sonata-Rondo form. The movement opens with sixths in the right hand, which is its main theme. Like the first movement, the second theme in the exposition is also written in G Major. The great speed of this movement make this a challenging movement for pianists.
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- "Beethoven: Piano Sonata Op 2 No. 3". Theomniscientmussel.com. 2008-06-20. Retrieved 2011-12-22.
- A lecture by András Schiff on Beethoven's piano sonata Op. 2 No. 3
- A public-domain recording of this sonata, at Musopen
- Piano Sonata No. 3: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project
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