Piano Sonata No. 8 (Beethoven)
Ludwig van Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 8 in C minor, Op. 13, commonly known as Sonata Pathétique, was written in 1798 when the composer was 27 years old, and was published in 1799. Beethoven dedicated the work to his friend Prince Karl von Lichnowsky. Although commonly thought to be one of the few works to be named by the composer himself, it was actually named Grande sonate pathétique (to Beethoven's liking) by the publisher, who was impressed by the sonata's tragic sonorities.
Prominent musicologists debate whether or not the Pathétique may have been inspired by Mozart's piano sonata K. 457, since both compositions are in C minor and have three very similar movements. The second movement, "Adagio cantabile", especially, makes use of a theme remarkably similar to that of the spacious second movement of Mozart's sonata. However, Beethoven's sonata uses a unique motif line throughout, a major difference from Haydn or Mozart’s creation.
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In its entirety, encompassing all three movements, the work takes approximately 19 minutes to perform.
The sonata consists of three movements:
- Grave (Slowly, with solemnity) – Allegro di molto e con brio (Quickly, with much vigour)
- Adagio cantabile (Slowly, in a singing style)
- Rondo: Allegro (Quickly)
Grave – Allegro di molto e con brio
The first movement is in sonata form. It begins with a slow introductory theme, marked Grave. The exposition, marked Allegro di molto con brio, is in 2
2 time (alla breve) in the home key of C minor and features three themes. Theme 1 features an aggressive rocket theme covering two octaves, accompanied with constant tremolo octaves in the left hand. Beethoven then makes use of unorthodox mode-mixture, as he presents the second theme in E-flat minor rather than its customary parallel major. This theme is more lyrical and makes use of grace notes and crossed hands. Theme 3 has modulated to the mediant, E-flat major, and features an Alberti-type figuration for the bass with tremolo. A codetta, with ideas from the opening allegro, closes the section. Some performers of the sonata include the introduction in the repeat of the exposition, but most return to the beginning of the allegro section.
The development section begins in the key of G minor. In this section, Beethoven extends Haydn's compositional practice by returning to the introductory section. After this reappearance of the Grave, the composer generates suspense with an extended dominant preparation.
The recapitulation brings back the themes of the exposition in different keys: themes 1 and 3 are played in the tonic key of C minor, then theme 2 is played in the unexpected key of F minor but then returns to the tonic key. The coda is very dramatic and includes a brief reminder of the Grave before ending with a swift cadence.
| First movement (help·info)
MIDI rendition, 6:57 minutes, 30 KB
This movement exemplifies the expressive Adagio style of many slow movements in the classical period. The famous cantabile melody is played three times, always in A-flat major, separated by two modulating episodes; the movement is thus a simple rondo rather than the sonata form more common for movements of this seriousness. The first episode is set in F minor (relative minor of A-flat major), further modulating to E-flat major before returning to the main theme. The second episode begins in A-flat minor and modulates to E major. With the final return of the main theme, the accompaniment becomes richer and takes on the triplet rhythm of the second episode. There is a brief coda.
| Second movement (help·info)
MIDI rendition, 5:03 minutes, 12 KB
The cantabile from this movement was used as the theme music for radio's most widely listened-to classical music program, Adventures in Good Music, which aired nationally in the United States and in many other countries from 1970 to 2007. The theme was performed by Karl Haas, the program's host.
The sonata closes with a cut time movement in C minor. The main theme closely resembles the second theme of the Allegro of the first movement: its melodic pattern is identical for its first four notes, and its rhythmic pattern for the first eight. There is also a modified representation of the melody from the second movement, thus connecting all three movements together. The movement's sonata rondo form includes a coda. The three rondo episodes are in E-flat major, A-flat major, and C major. The common use of sforzando creates a forceful effect.
| Third movement (help·info)
MIDI rendition, 4:25 minutes, 17 KB
Modern derivative works
- "Island", song by Renaissance from their 1969 self-titled album
- "Great Expectations" from the 1976 Kiss album Destroyer
- "Midnight Blue", 1982 song by the English mezzo-soprano Louise Tucker
- "This Night", 1984 song by Billy Joel
- "Brother on the Rooftop", song by Charles Lloyd on his 1993 album The Call.
- "Beethoven Virus", instrumental techno-dance song, based on the third movement, by BanYa, featured in the dance simulation arcade game Pump It Up (1999)
- Beethoven Pathetique Sonata Op. 13 All About Beethoven. Retrieved May 1, 2008.
- Burkhart, Charles: Anthology for Musical Analysis, page 233. Schirmer 2004.
- Marks, F. Helena. The Sonata: Its Form and Meaning as Exemplified in the Piano Sonatas by Mozart. W. Reeves, London, 1921.
- WCLV – Adventures in Good Music with Karl Haas
- Holley, Joe (8 February 2005). "Classical Radio Personality Karl Haas, 91, Dies". The Washington Post. p. B06. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
- Adler, David R.. Piano Sonata No. 8 (Beethoven) at AllMusic. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "Beethoven Virus" on YouTube
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Piano Sonata No. 8 (Beethoven).|
- Piano Sonata No. 8: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Score from the Ricordi edition, William and Gayle Cook Music Library at the Indiana University School of Music
- Public-domain recording of this sonata at Musopen
- Score and MIDI files from Mutopia Project in several formats
- Brief analysis of the Sonata Pathétique and free score on the All About Ludwig van Beethoven pages
- A lecture by András Schiff on Beethoven's piano sonata op. 13